Computing Timeline

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Add your items to the list of events below. You must do the following for each item:

  • Preserve the order of events
  • Include the year
  • Provide at least one reputable reference. Please remember that Wikipedia is not a valid reference.
  • Include your first and last name.
  • If someone else has added an event already, please make any modifications that you see fit and then add your name next to the other person's name.
  • DO NOT copy items from Keith Pray's timeline.


Date Description References Name
2000 BC The abacus is invented. A frame made out of wood holding rods with sliding beads on them, used to aid in arithmetic calculations. http://www.ee.ryerson.ca/~elf/abacus/history.html, W. Aspray, Computing Before Computers. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1990. Joshua Cuneo, Kunal Shah
1500 BC The water clock is invented in Ancient Egypt. Stone vessels with sloping slides drip water at a near constant rate into cylindrical containers. The cylindrical containers have markings on the side to represent how much time has passed. https://www.nist.gov/pml/walk-through-time-early-clocks Kunal Shah
910 BC The Chinese South-Pointing Chariot was invented. It marks the first-known use of a differential gear. https://history-computer.com/CalculatingTools/AnalogComputers/South_pointing_chariot.html Simon Redding
500 BC Indian grammarian Panini wrote Aṣṭādhyāyī, a treatise on the grammar of Sanskrit. Foundation of formal language theory, and compared to Turing Machines https://www.britannica.com/topic/Ashtadhyayi#ref1167413 Simon Redding
200 BC Indian mathematician Pingala wrote Chhandah-shāstra, which is the first recorded instance of the binary number system. http://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/pingala Simon Redding
125 BC The Antikythera Device was created. It was an incredibly complex clockwork machine used as an orrery. The most complicated known machine of the antiquity. http://www.antikythera-mechanism.gr/project/overview Simon Redding
60 Heron of Alexandria creates a series of mechanical inventions including: fully-automated plays, a vending machine, and steam-driven machines. http://www.encyclopedia.com/people/science-and-technology/mathematics-biographies/hero-alexandria Simon Redding
1440 Johannes Gutenberg invents the Printing Press E.L. Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change: Communications and Cultural Transformations in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1980. Kunal Shah
1510 Peter Henlien creates the mechanical clock http://www.historyofwatch.com/ Alberto Ramirez
1640 Pascal created the first mechanical calculator Quinn M. Ethics for the information age. 7th ed. Pearson; 2016:6. Ally Howell
1659 Christiaan Huygens invents a magic lantern, early form of a projector http://www.historiccamera.com/cgi-bin/librarium/pm.cgi?action=displaylogin=projector_history Alberto Ramirez
1730 English writer Daniel Defoe suggests taking a person's pulse may be a way to detect whether they're telling the truth during questioning. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Daniel-Defoe Jackson Baker
1801 Jacquard Loom was invented. http://www.computerhistory.org/storageengine/punched-cards-control-jacquard-loom/ Yo Karita
1804 Joseph Jacquard develops an automated mechanical loom that is able to spin complex patterns using punch cards. www.britannica.com/technology/Jacquard-loom Matt Schueler
1831 Michael Faraday invents the first electric dynamo https://www.universetoday.com/82402/who-discovered-electricity/ Ethan Schutzman
1832 The Military Enigma was announced and only available to the German Army http://www.cryptomuseum.com/crypto/enigma/hist.htm Jason Abel
1834 Charles Babbage came up with analytical engine. http://www.computerhistory.org/babbage/ Yo Karita
1836 The ability of the Telegraph is demonstrated by Samuel Morse by using Morse code http://www.wrvmuseum.org/morsecodehistory.htm Jason Abel
1838 Samuel Morse patents his telegraph machine M. J. Quinn, “Catalysts for Change,” in Ethics for the Information Age, 7th ed. Boston: Pearson, 2016. Gianluca Tarquinio
1844 Morse sends the Telegraph message "What hath God wrought" to his partner opening up telegraph lines https://www.loc.gov/collections/samuel-morse-papers/articles-and-essays/invention-of-the-telegraph/ Rachel Manca
1846-1848 Charles Babbage designs his second Difference Engine. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1498720/ Tessa Garbely
1858 The First Transatlantic Telegraph Cables http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.wpi.edu/document/871324/ B Bowers
1860's The first commercially successful typewriter invented by Christopher Latham Sholes with help from Carlos Gidden, Chief Lieutenant http://blogs.ubc.ca/etec540sept12/2012/10/28/the-typewriter-a-remarkable-impact-on-communication/ Jason Abel
1865 The concept of Email was introduced where you leave messages in another person's file directory for them to see later http://www.nethistory.info/History%20of%20the%20Internet/email.html Jason Abel
1872 Email sent over computer networks was created by Ray Tomlinson http://www.nethistory.info/History%20of%20the%20Internet/email.html Jason Abel
1876 Alexander Bell files for patent for the telephone http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5252617 Rachel Manca
1877 Thomas Edison invents the phonograph by accident. http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/recon/jb_recon_phongrph_1.html David Deisadze
1879 James Ritty invents the cash register http://www.thecorememory.com/The_History_of_Cash_Registers.pdf, M. Quinn, “Ethics for the Information Age,” 7th Edition, 2017, pp. 8-9 Alberto Ramirez, Catherine Sherman
1880s Heinrich Hertz completes first radar experiments https://www.britannica.com/technology/radar/History-of-radar Alex Hard
1884 Maxim gun invented, a machine gun used in World War I http://www.historynet.com/weapons-of-world-war-i.htm Daniel McKay
1890 Nikola Tesla creates the Tesla coil, the basis of wireless charging https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hqIiiAN_yu8 Daniel Champlin
1892 English physician Sir James Mackenzie develops a pen-trace polygraph for making medical measurements of a person's heart rate. http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/broughttolife/objects/display?id=93324 Jackson Baker
1895 Guglielmelli Marconi invents the radio. https://www.thoughtco.com/invention-of-radio-1992382 David Deisadze
1895 Italian criminologist Cesare Lombroso uses a crude polygraph to measure a suspect's blood pressure and pulse during questioning. http://www.polygraphia.ca/polygraph_history.html Jackson Baker
1897 75 mm artillery gun invented https://www.britannica.com/technology/artillery Daniel McKay
1904 Vilhelm Bjerknes theorizes weather forecasting using a mathematical model BJERKNES, V., 1904: Das Problem der Wettervorhersage, betrachtet vom Standpunkte der Mechanik und der Physik (The problem of weather prediction, considered from the viewpoints of mechanics and physics). – Meteorol. Z. 21, 1–7. (translated and edited by VOLKEN E. and S. BRO ̈ NNIMANN. – Meteorol. Z. 18 (2009), 663–667). Nick Benoit
1906 Lewis Nixon invents a passive sonar listening device https://www.thoughtco.com/the-history-of-sonar-1992436 Alberto Ramirez
1909 William Burroughs finds that the calculator made workers six times faster M. J. Quinn, “Catalysts for Change,” in Ethics for the Information Age, 7th ed. Boston: Pearson, 2016. Gianluca Tarquinio
1911 Aircraft first used in war http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_airwar.html Michael Antonelli
1915 Ford Instruments MK1 Rangekeep created https://www.usni.org/magazines/navalhistory/2015-10/armaments-innovations-revolutionary-rangekeeper Alex Hard
1921 First Pager system used http://www.spok.com/blog/throwback-thursday-history-pagers Rachel Mancahttp://content.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1907884,00.html
1921 Canadian-born psychologist John Larson invents the original polygraph while working in Berkeley, California http://www.argo-a.com.ua/eng/history.html Jackson Baker
1922 Lewis Fry Richardson publishes "Weather Prediction using Numerical Process" L. F. Richardson, “Weather Prediction by Numerical Process,” Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1922. Nick Benoit
1923 Enigma Machine Created http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/topics/enigma Alex Hard
1929 Tin Pan Alley songwriting company first began distributing music via paper song sheets, allowing for customers to enjoy music from the comfort of their own home and thus paving the way for future music distribution http://ebookcentral.proquest.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/lib/wpi/reader.action?ppg=3&docID=3038271&tm=1504739080522 Henry Wheeler-Mackta
1930 Mark I Naval targeting computer is introduced http://www.navweaps.com/index_tech/tech-056.htm Gene Slover
1934 IBM 801 Bank Proof machine is created http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/us/en/icons/bankauto/ www.ibm.com
1939 The soviets use the first remotely operated tanks in Finland http://www.popsci.com/blog-network/zero-moment/tale-teletank-brief-rise-and-long-fall-russia%E2%80%99s-military-robots Michael Antonelli
1942 LORAN (LOng RAnge Navigation) was first used by the allies http://www.uscg.mil/history/missions/aton/LORAN/docs/LORAN_Volume_1_Index.asp Alex Hard
1942 The first all-electronic computer was built by John Anastoff and Clifford Berry at Iowa State University. 1942 was when the project was completed; construction began in 1937. https://www.ece.iastate.edu/the-department/history/history-of-computing/ Jordan Burklund Tessa Garbely
1943 4 wheel Bombe Machine used to defeat Enigma code http://www.cryptomuseum.com/crypto/bombe/ Alex Hard
1943-1945 Plankalkül, the first high-level programming language, was designed http://www.catb.org/retro/plankalkuel/ Siqin Li
1944 The Colossus, an electronic digital computer used to break the German Lorenz SZ-40 cipher machine, finally cracked its first message http://cryptomuseum.com/crypto/colossus/index.htm Jason Abel Tessa Garbely
1945 Nuclear Bomb finished testing by US scientists http://www.ushistory.org/us/51f.asp Daniel McKay
1947 Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Mann Estle Ray patent the Cathode-ray tube amusement device, the first known electronic game. https://patents.google.com/patent/US2455992A/en Talal Jaber
1948 Edwin Herbert Land invents the Polaroid photography https://www.thoughtco.com/history-of-photography-and-the-camera-1992331 Alberto Ramirez
1949 Short Code was created, which is one of the first higher-level language for an electronic computer https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Short%20Code%20(computer%20language)&item_type=topic Siqin Li
1950 Alan Turing defined the Turing Test as an indicator of Artificial Intelligence. S. J. Russell, P. Norvig, and E. Davis, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, 3rd ed. Prentice Hall, 2010. ; Brian Zylich & Ian MacGregor http://www.psych.utoronto.ca/users/reingold/courses/ai/turing.html
1950 The earliest known electronic computer games implemented: Bertie the Brain and Nimrod. Bertie the Brain allowed a player to play tic-tac-toe against an AI. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_video_games

http://spacing.ca/toronto/2014/08/13/meet-bertie-brain-worlds-first-arcade-game-built-toronto

Long Vu Talal Jaber
1950 The first successful weather prediction is calculated on a computer using a UNIVAC at the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. S. Whitman, “Meet the Computer Scientist You Should Thank For Your Smartphone’s Weather App,” Smithsonian Magazine, Washington D.C., 2017. Nick Benoit
1950 John T. Mullin spreads the use of multitrack recordings. http://www.soundrecordinghistory.net/history-of-sound-recording/multitrack-recording-history/ David Deisadze
1951 UNIVAC I, one of the first commercial computers, delivered to the U.S. Bureau of the Census. M. J. Quinn, Ethics for the Information Age 7th edition. Hoboken, NJ: Pearson Education, 2017. Tessa Garbely
1952 The first code and compiler was invented for the Mark 1 computer http://www.historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=4363 Siqin Li
1954 The language FORTRAN was invented at IBM by John Backus http://groups.engin.umd.umich.edu/CIS/course.des/cis400/fortran/fortran.html Siqin Li
1958 Jack Kilby creates the first working integrated circuit http://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/search/object/nmah_689592 Daniel Champlin
1958 Physicist William Higinbotham develops the first video game, called Tennis for Two https://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/200810/physicshistory.cfm Robert Harrison
1958 "Setun" (Сетунь) A Tertiary-based (Non-Binary) computer is created by the Moscow State University http://www.computer-museum.ru/index.php Eduard Prodaykov
1958 "Tennis for two" the first ever video game is introduced. Created by William Higinbotham, this is also the first multiplayer game to be developed. https://www.bnl.gov/about/history/firstvideo.php www.bnl.gov Talal Jaber
1950s The ALGOL, a family of imperative programming languages, was invented http://groups.engin.umd.umich.edu/CIS/course.des/cis400/algol/algol.html Siqin Li
1960's Minuteman II ballistic missile invented, using integrated circuits for improved speed in guidance system M. J. Quinn, Ethics for the Information Age 7th edition. Hoboken, NJ: Pearson Education, 2017. Daniel McKay
1960's Joseph Weizenbaum creates ELIZA, a chat bot parodying therapists, in response to the Turing Test http://www.psych.utoronto.ca/users/reingold/courses/ai/turing.html Ian MacGregor
1961 First widespread computer game developed: SpaceWar! https://www.jesperjuul.net/thesis/2-historyofthecomputergame.html Long Vu
1961 Unimate, an industrial production robot, was first used on a General Motors line. https://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/industrial-robots/george-devol-a-life-devoted-to-invention-and-robots Matt Schueler
1961 Shakey, the world's first mobile robot, was developed at the Stanford Research Institute. http://www.ai.sri.com/shakey/ Matt Schueler
1972 Alan C. Kay releases his paper titled "A Personal Computer for Children of All Ages", which is one of the first proposals for portable, paperless, and battery powered computers, leading to laptops and tablets becoming common consumer items. http://history-computer.com/Library/Kay72.pdf Jordan Burklund
1974 Bill Gates and Paul G. Allen found Microsoft http://www.history.com/topics/inventions/invention-of-the-pc Ethan Schutzman
1975 MITS Altair 8800 is released. At $297 for a kit, this is one of the first computers that is accessible to hobbyists. A BASIC interpreter written for this device also became the foundations of Microsoft. http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/computers/ Jordan Burklund
1957 Air Material Command and the Aircraft Industries Association collaborated with MIT to produce the first Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machine. http://machinist.org/cnc-computer-numerical-control/the-invention-of-cnc-machining/ Cory Brolliar
1960s Companies started using automated call distributor technology (ACD) https://www.callcentrehelper.com/the-history-of-the-call-centre-15085.htm Catherine Sherman
1961 The first industrial robot (Unimate 1900) was put to market by George Devol https://www.robotics.org/joseph-engelberger/unimate.cfm http://www.robothalloffame.org/inductees/03inductees/unimate.html Cory Brolliar & Matthew LeMay
1961 Arthur Samuel developed a program based on Machine Learning that defeated a nationally-ranked checkers champion. http://infolab.stanford.edu/pub/voy/museum/samuel.html Brian Zylich
1962 Ivan Sutherland presents the first graphical user interface which used a light pen to manipulate objects displayed on a CRT. https://3d-innovations.com/blog/the-history-of-computer-aided-design-cad/ Cory Brolliar
November 1963 Rosen, a researcher at the Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park, California, envisioned a roboperson driven by neural networks, algorithms that mimic the human brain. https://spectrum.ieee.org/view-from-the-valley/tech-history/space-age/sri-shakey-robot-honored-as-ieee-milestone Matthew LeMay
1965 The first touch screen is invented by E. A. Johnson https://arstechnica.com/gadgets/2013/04/from-touch-displays-to-the-surface-a-brief-history-of-touchscreen-technology/ Daniel Champlin
1966 The Automatic Language Processing Advisory Committee published a report indicating that Machine Translation was hopeless, causing funding for Natural Language Processing to nearly disappear for 20 years. http://www.hutchinsweb.me.uk/MTNI-14-1996.pdf Brian Zylich
1966 The Development of Fiber Optic Cables http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=ITOF&u=mlin_c_worpoly&id=GALE%7CA241780798&v=2.1&it=r&sid=summon&ugroup=outside&authCount=1 Stephen Hardy
1968 Ivan Sutherland (known as the "father of computer graphics") created the first Augmented Reality technology. https://hbr.org/2016/10/the-mainstreaming-of-augmented-reality-a-brief-history Cory Brolliar
1968 Douglas Engelbart demonstrates the "mother of all demos"and ushers in the era of GUIs and peripherals for computers. Mouse was first invented. http://www.streusplit.readit-dtp.de/pdf/gui_history.pdf; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yJDv-zdhzMY Albert Enyedy; Duong Nguyen
1969 ARPANET is created when four Universities computers interconnected with one another. https://www.livescience.com/20727-internet-history.html Derek Murphy
1969 First man on the moon. https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/apollo11.html Michael Antonelli
1971 NASA's stress analysis software released to be used in the automotive industry. NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) 20110003604: NASA Tech Briefs, March 1998. Volume 22, no. 3Anonymous 1998, pp. 23-24 Rayyan Khan
1971 Retired US Army officers develop a speech-sampling machine called a Psychological Stress Evaluator (PSE), which attempts to detect lies from the falterings and hesitations http://www.argo-a.com.ua/eng/history.html Jackson Baker
1971 Computer Space is developed by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney and becomes the first ever commercialized computer game. http://www.technologizer.com/2011/12/11/computer-space-and-the-dawn-of-the-arcade-video-game/ Talal Jaber
1972 James P. Anderson pointed out the potential system security issue. http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0772806 Xiaojun Wang
1972 Email starts to be used M. Quinn, “Ethics for the Information Age,” 7th Edition, 2017, pp. 28-30 Catherine Sherman
1972 C is first used http://www.bell-labs.com/usr/dmr/www/chist.html Zachary Vaughan
1973 IBM creates 3340 Hard Drive https://www.jstor.org/stable/3116804?pq-origsite=summon Jeffrey Tolbert
1973 James Lighthill published a report that criticized the field of AI for not delivering on its ambitious promises, causing an "AI Winter" where research in AI nearly slowed to a halt due to a lack of funding. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/4475849/ Brian Zylich
1973 First Hand Held Cell Phone by Motorola libraries.state.ma.us/login?gwurl=http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A162186706/SCIC?u=mlin_c_worpoly&xid=b7a0697a. Bob Edwards
1973 ABC (Atanasoff-Berry Computer) ruled to precede the ENIAC as an "automatic digital computer" in a court case concerning the ENIAC patents. http://physicstoday.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1387611 Tessa Garbely
1973 CERN touch screens, one the first touch screens, developed with inventor Bent Stumpe. https://cds.cern.ch/record/1248908?ln=en AmyBea Walder
1973 University College of London (England) and Royal Radar Establishment (Norway) connect to ARPANET https://www.livescience.com/20727-internet-history.html Derek Murphy
1974 The TCP/IP protocol is deployed to ARPNET https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc958821.aspx Andrew Nemeth
1974 The first-person-shooter Maze War is created and becomes the first computer game playable over a network. http://www.digibarn.com/collections/games/xerox-maze-war/ Talal Jaber
1975 ANIMAL could be the first Trojan horse virus. http://www.fourmilab.ch/documents/univac/animal.html Xiaojun Wang
1977 MIT students Tim Anderson, Marc Blank, Bruce Daniels, and Dave Lebling release the text based adventure game Zork. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/608670/the-enduring-legacy-of-zork/ Robert Harrison
1979 Meteorologists at the European Center for Medium-Range Forecasting begin using a 51 prediction ensemble weather forecasting model. P. Lynch, "The origins of computer weather prediction and climate modeling," Journal of Computational Physics, vol. 227, (7), pp. 3431-3444, 2008. Nick Benoit
1979 Sony Corp releases the portable cassete player, Sony Walkman http://content.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1907884,00.html David Deisadze
1980 Introduction of 5.25 inch hard drive https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-14752-4_5 Jeffrey Tolbert
1980 Atari releases the arcade game Space Invaders on its console, the VCS, leading to a massive increase in console sales. http://www.atariage.com/2600/ Alex Tian
1983 A "network of networks" is created, the foundation of the modern internet http://www.history.com/news/ask-history/who-invented-the-internet/, http://www.internetsociety.org/internet/what-internet/history-internet/brief-history-internet Ethan Schutzman, Kunal Shah
1983 TCP/IP was released and ARPANET officially switched to TCP/IP and this created more standardized way for computers to interact http://www.usg.edu/galileo/skills/unit07/internet07_02.phtml Derek Murphy
1983 Apple develops the "Lisa" GUI. Lisa used icons to indicate documents or applications, and included the first pull-down menu. http://www.streusplit.readit-dtp.de/pdf/gui_history.pdf Albert Enyedy
1983 C++ is published http://www.stroustrup.com/hopl2.pdf Zachary Vaughan
1983 Introduction of 3.5 inch hard drive http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com/book/digital-media/9780240814483 Jeffrey Tolbert
1984 Charles Hull produces the first 3D printer technology https://www.autodesk.com/redshift/history-of-3d-printing/ Cory Brolliar
1984 First portable cell phone, the Motorola 8000 https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=sBNfZNqcOzoC&oi=

nd&pg=PT6&dq=cell+phone+history&ots=o_ZvBQMncC&sig=sHccxRmmGYdxD30Y8SqbJLLHSP8#v=onepage&q=cell%20phone%20history&f=false

Rachel Manca
1985 First rechareable lithium ion battery is produced by Akira Yoshino at Asahi Chemical http://www.asahi-kasei.co.jp/asahi/en/r_and_d/interview/yoshino/pdf/lithium-ion_battery.pdf
1985 Release of Microsoft's first operating system, Windows 1.0 https://www.newyorker.com/tech/elements/the-first-windows AmyBea Walder Yang Liu
1986 National Science Foundation funds a 56Kbps cross-country network backbones http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html Joshua Cuneo
1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act is enacted by the US Government https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/criminal-ccips/legacy/2015/01/14/ccmanual.pdf Juan Chávez Guerrero
1987 Acorn Computers creates "Arthur" GUI. First implementation of a taskbar. Also used anti-aliasing on the fonts, even in color mode, making the interface look more aesthetically pleasing. http://www.streusplit.readit-dtp.de/pdf/gui_history.pdf Albert Enyedy
1987 AI was first used in banking when Security Pacific National Bank in USA organize a Fraud Prevention Task in order to refute the unauthorized use of debit cards. http://aima.cs.berkeley.edu/ Nan Hu
1988 Robert T.Morris created the first worm virus http://groups.csail.mit.edu/mac/classes/6.805/articles/morris-worm.html , https://www.giac.org/paper/gsec/405/morris-worm-affected-computer-security-lessons-learned/100954 Xiaojun Wang, Juan Chávez Guerrero, Spencer Beaupre
1988 National Center of Biotechnology Information is established. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/ Ally Howell
1988 Sega releases a new home console called the Sega Mega Drive/Genesis. https://web.archive.org/web/20071016064132/http://www.consoledatabase.com/consoleinfo/segamegadrive/index.html Alex Tian
1988 Introduction of 2.5 inch hard drive https://www.pcworld.com/article/127105/article.html Jeffrey Tolbert
1989 AIM Released https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-5961(02)00015-0 Gerald Faulhaber
1989 HTTP/1.1 Is Deployed https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616 Andrew Nemeth
1989 Microsoft released the first version of Office https://news.microsoft.com/facts-about-microsoft Yang Liu
1989 World.st.com becomes first commercial provider of dial-up access to the Internet. https://www.livescience.com/20727-internet-history.html Derek Murphy
1989 Sir Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989 https://webfoundation.org/about/vision/history-of-the-web/ Duong Nguyen
1990 Nintendo releases the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) in response to the Sega Genesis. http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/det/24546/Super-Nintendo-Entertainment-System/ Alex Tian
1991 Linus Torvaldis releases the first version of the Linux Kernel. https://www.livinginternet.com/i/iw_unix_gnulinux.htm Jordan Burklund Yang Liu
1992 CMOS active pixel sensor is created by Eric A. Fossum http://ericfossum.com/Presentations/1995%20Nov%20NASA%20FY95%20Tech%20Progress%20Rpt.pdf Daniel Champlin
1992 The arcade game Mortal Kombat is released by Midway. It is met with controversy for having realistic graphics and extreme violence. http://academic.eb.com/levels/collegiate/article/Mortal-Kombat/438627 Alex Tian
1992 Two US senators lead hearings on video games and the corruption on society. The hearings focus on two games: Mortal Kombat and Night Trap for being realistic and containing extreme violence or sexually suggestive themes. http://www.escapistmagazine.com/articles/view/video-games/columns/the-needles/1300-Inappropriate-Content-A-Brief-History-of-Videogame-Ratings-and-t Alex Tian
1992 Introduction of 1.3 inch hard drive http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=ITOF&u=mlin_c_worpoly&id=GALE|A12455818&v=2.1&it=r&sid=summon&password=boushuperionos&ugroup=outside Jeffrey Tolbert
1993 Mortal Kombat is released on both the SNES and the Genesis. However, the SNES version is censored to make the game more family friendly. http://www.ign.com/articles/2011/05/05/the-history-of-mortal-kombat?page=2 Alex Tian
1993 NASA develops global positioning technology (GPS) https://www.nasa.gov/directorates/heo/scan/communications/policy/GPS_History.html Catherine Sherman
1993 John Carmac and John Romero release Doom, a first person shooter which popularized the first person camera view in games B. Loguidice and M. Barton, Vintage Games: An Insider Look at the History of Grand Theft Auto, Super Mario, and the most Influential Games of all Time. 2009;2012;. DOI: 10.4324/9780080880136. Robert Harrison
1994 The Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) is created by a group of major video game developers after threats of federal regulations. http://www.escapistmagazine.com/articles/view/video-games/columns/the-needles/1300-Inappropriate-Content-A-Brief-History-of-Videogame-Ratings-and-t Alex Tian
1994 A volcano-exploring robot named Dante explored a volcano in Alaska, falling over after just over a week inside the volcano, but surviving the encounter. http://articles.latimes.com/1994-08-07/news/mn-24572_1_robot-explorer Matt Schueler
1994 David Mansbery uses NASA's Embedded Web Technology to create a smart oven. https://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/technologies/oven.html Rayyan Khan
1994 The first smartphone Simon was released made by IMB http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-28802053 Rachel Manca
1994 Chinook, declared Man-Machine World Champion in draughts in 1994, became first computer program to win world championship title against human http://www.techworld.com/picture-gallery/data/six-times-ai-has-beaten-humans-in-competitions-3636755/ Long Vu
1995 Self-Driving Car drives on a trip named No Hands Across America http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~tjochem/nhaa/nhaa_home_page.html Vanshaj Chowdhary
1995 Microslate Inc. patents a touch screen portable computer. https://www.google.com/patents/US5379057 Albert Enyedy
1995 The MPEG Audio Layer III encoding process and associated MP3 file type was released. Online music distribution would never be the same. http://www.npr.org/sections/therecord/2011/03/23/134622940/the-mp3-a-history-of-innovation-and-betrayal Henry Wheeler-Mackta
1995 Microsoft released Windows 95 with the introduction of Start Bar. https://www.theverge.com/2016/2/11/10923808/microsoft-windows-start-menu-20-years-visual-history Duong Nguyen
1995 SSL Deployed https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms181053.aspx Andrew Nemeth
1995 Java is published. https://www.forbes.com/sites/oracle/2015/05/20/javas-20-years-of-innovation/ Zachary Vaughan
1995 SSH builds on SSL https://www.forbes.com/sites/oracle/2015/05/20/javas-20-years-of-innovation/ Andrew Nemeth
1997 IBM's Deep Blue AI beat the world chess champion. http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/us/en/icons/deepblue/ ; https://www.ibm.com/blogs/think/2017/05/deep-blue/ Brian Zylich ; Vanshaj Chowdhary http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/25/technology/25pogue.html; Ian MacGregor http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/us/en/icons/deepblue/
1997 Netflix is created. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/25/technology/25pogue.html Brian Zylich ; Vanshaj Chowdhary
1997 Stack-smashing protection was first implemented by StackGuard to prevent buffer overflow attacks https://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/sec98/full_papers/cowan/cowan.pdf Xiaojun Wang
1997 Kismet was programmed to have the same basic motivations as a 6-month-old child. http://www.roboticstoday.com/robots/kismet Matthew LeMay
1998 SixDegree was the first social media site launched to connect people over the internet http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00393.x/full Kenedi Heather
1998 Khan Smith reveals the first DoS attack hhttp://unecentral.com/?p=36 https://s2.ist.psu.edu/ist451/DDoS-Chap-Gu-June-07.pdf Spencer Beaupre
1999 The online music distribution service Napster released. Users could now download, listen, and share their music files illegitimately. Napster was the first of many popular music piracy services. http://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/doi/full/10.1080/1478601X.2011.561648?scroll=top&needAccess=true Henry Wheeler-Mackta, Chris Cormier
1999 Nokia reveals the first ever phone that uses Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), a simple way to access internet of a cellphone. http://xml.coverpages.org/nokiaWAP9902.html www.nokia.com
2000's NOAA uses IBM's Blue and White supercomputers to process millions of live data points from hundreds of weather stations around the globe to produce over 100,000 predictions per day. B. Handwerk, “Faster Supercomputers Aiding Weather Forecasts,” National Geographic News, 2005. Nick Benoit
2000 The online music distribution service LimeWire released. Unlike many competitors, LimeWire relied entirely on Peer-to-peer networking, thus removing the need for a centralized data server and making it much more difficult for the music industry to take meaningful legal action. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/lib/wpi/reader.action?ppg=3&docID=3038271&tm=1504739080522 Henry Wheeler-Mackta
2000 Honda reveals the ASIMO humanoid robot. https://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/humanoids/honda-using-experimental-asimo-for-disaster-research Matthew LeMay
2000 ILOVEYOU worm infection spreads through a script disguised as a text file in an email that sent copies of itself to the first 500 contacts found. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4f51/1aac640edb993232468954631f3328e0066d.pdf Spencer Beaupre
2001 A collaboration between John Deere, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and NASA develops self driving tractors. https://www.federallabs.org/index.php?tray=success_stories&tid=1FLtop34&cid=166DWlaptop176 Rayyan Khan
2001 The first version of Bittorrent is released https://www.webcitation.org/5zslWzAdB?url=http://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/decentralization/message/3160 Chris Cormier
2001 Apple's iTunes service releases, allowing for consumers to legally enjoy the benefits of online distribution without having to rely on illegitimate services. The music industry had finally caught up with evolving technology. http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.wpi.edu/stable/pdf/30162196.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A84ef7bd9da4a285dff016c2c5b1bb0f9 Henry Wheeler-Mackta
2001 AI beat humans in simulating financial trading competition. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/1481339.stm Nan Hu
2001 Apple released it's first smart music player, the iPod https://www.lifewire.com/history-ipod-classic-original-2000732 Yang Liu David Deisadze
2002 iRobot releases the Roomba. J. Forlizzi and C. DiSalvo, "Service robots in the domestic environment: A study of the roomba vacuum in the home," in 2006, . DOI: 10.1145/1121241.1121286. Thomas Hagen
2002 Shazam was launched for users to discover the music easily. https://www.facebook.com/pg/Shazam/about/?ref=page_internal Yosuke Nakamura
2003 Skype starts to be used https://www.skype.com/en/about/ Catherine Sherman
2003 MySpace was launched to connect bands to their fans http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00393.x/full Kenedi Heather
2004 Facebook is live! Originally created to connect University students, quickly gained popularity https://www.livescience.com/20727-internet-history.html Derek Murphy, Juan Chávez Guerrero, Kenedi Heather
2005 In 2005, the United States Air Force begins to construct a cyber warfare department. http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/US_Air_Force_Prepares_For_Cyber_Warfare_999.html Michael Antonelli
2005 youtube.com domain is registered. YouTube was developed for people to share their videos more easily. http://whois.domaintools.com/youtube.com https://sites.google.com/a/pressatgoogle.com/youtube5year/home/short-story-of-youtube Chris Cormier Yosuke Nakamura
2005 MegaUpload is created. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/jul/11/kim-dotcom-megaupload-founder-plans-reboot-2017 Chris Cormier
2006 A group researching deep learning found a method of unsupervised learning that could detect layers of features without being told what it was looking at Y. LeCun, Y. Bengio and G. Hinton, "Deep learning," Nature, vol. 521, (7553), pp. 436-444, 2015. Gianluca Tarquinio
2007 Apple Releases the first iPhone https://www.thesnugg.com/a-brief-history-of-smartphones.aspx; http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/4249824/ Ethan Schutzman; Duong Nguyen Yang Liu
2007 Ustream was launched. Live broadcasting service. https://www.ustream.tv/our-company Yosuke Nakamura
2007 Soundcloud was launched as an online music distribution platform. https://www.sutori.com/story/history-of-music-streaming Yosuke Nakamura
2008 The first Android based smartphone is released to consumers. https://www.androidcentral.com/android-pre-history Jordan Burklund
2008 Spotify was launched. With seemingly infinite number of music that users can listen on Spotify, they tried to tackle the issue of music piracy. https://www.sutori.com/story/history-of-music-streaming Yosuke Nakamura
2009 Barack Obama authorizes the increase of use in military drones. N. Sharkey, "The Automation and Proliferation of Military Drones and the Protection of Civilians," Law, Innovation and Technology, vol. 3, (2), pp. 229, 2011. Thomas Hagen Daniel McKay
2009 Windows 7 released to manufacturing and later general availability. https://blogs.windows.com/windowsexperience/2009/07/22/windows-7-has-been-released-to-manufacturing/ AmyBea Walder
2009 Google Self-Driving Cars are developed. https://waymo.com/journey/ Vanshaj Chowdhary
2009 4G LTE was first released https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4G Duong Nguyen
2010 OpenStack is released and cloud computing takes off. https://spinoff.nasa.gov/Spinoff2012/it_2.html Rayyan Khan
2010 Stuxnet, a malware used for a highly successful attack on Iran is discovered (it's infection date is unknown) https://www2.cs.arizona.edu/~collberg/Teaching/466-566/2012/Resources/presentations/2012/topic9-final/report.pdf Michael Antonelli Spencer Beaupre
2010 Apple's first iPad released for sale (to the US) https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2010/03/05iPad-Available-in-US-on-April-3/ AmyBea Walder
2010 Instagram was launched to connect people through pictures http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00393.x/full Kenedi Heather
2011 John Deere Releases GreenStar system for farmers http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.wpi.edu/document/1566333/ Ally Howell
2011 Snap-chat was launched to allow people to share what they are doing through pictures http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00393.x/full Kenedi Heather
2011 IBM's Watson wins Jeopardy! http://johncreid.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/The-Era-of-Cognitive-Systems-An-Inside-Look-at-IBM-Watson-and-How-it-Works_.pdf, K. Wagle, "IBM Watson: Revolutionizing healthcare?" Young Scientists Journal, vol. 6, (13), pp. 17, 2013. Vanshaj Chowdhary Gianluca Tarquinio
2011 C11 is published. http://www.open-std.org/jtc1/sc22/wg14/www/docs/n1570.pdf Zachary Vaughan
2012 Curiosity Rover lands on Mars. B. Riddle, "Following our Curiosity," Science Scope, vol. 39, (4), pp. 76-79, 2015. Thomas Hagen
2012 IPv6 designed and delpoyed http://www.worldipv6launch.org/ Andrew Nemeth
2012 Tesla releases the Tesla Model S. B. Brown, "The Social Life of Autonomous Cars," Computer, vol. 50, (2), pp. 92-96, 2017. Thomas Hagen
2012 FDA approves the RP-VITA the first fully autonomous robot capable of performing medical checkups. Z. Li, C. Yang and E. Burdet, "An Overview of Biomedical Robotics and Bio-Mechatronics Systems and Applications," Ieee Transactions on Systems Man Cybernetics-Systems, vol. 46, (7), pp. 869-874, 2016. Thomas Hagen
2012 Microsoft "delivers Windows 8 to the world". https://blogs.windows.com/windowsexperience/2012/10/25/windows-reimagined-windows8 AmyBea Walder
2012 US Government launches its first cyberattack targeted to Iran nuclear facilities http://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2567&context=faculty_scholarship Juan Chávez Guerrero
2013 Precision guided firearm designed by TrackingPoint unveiled, capable of accurate shots at over a kilometer https://arstechnica.com/gadgets/2013/01/17000-linux-powered-rifle-brings-auto-aim-to-the-real-world/ Michael Antonelli
2013 Edward Snowden leaks 1.5 million US government documents https://intelligence.house.gov/uploadedfiles/hpsci_snowden_review_-_unclass_summary_-_final.pdf Juan Chávez Guerrero
2013 Omate releases the "TrueSmart", the first Smart Watch to have smartphone capabilities such as voice calling https://www.cnet.com/products/omate-truesmart/preview/ Kunal Shah
2014 NASA releases a catalog of free NASA developed software to the public. https://fossbytes.com/nasa-free-open-source-software/ Rayyan Khan
2014 Swift is published. https://developer.apple.com/swift/blog/?id=14 Zachary Vaughan 2015 Apple releases the apple watch, a major attempt to popularize wearable technology https://www.apple.com/apple-watch-series-1/ Ethan Schutzman
2015 Life insurers using genetic history to deny people insurance morality paper https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4259574/ Ally Howell
2015 Honda begins testing ASIMO prototypes for disaster response https://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/humanoids/honda-using-experimental-asimo-for-disaster-research Matt Schueler
2015 The Oculus Rift, a virtual reality headset is released. http://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2016/03/28/472176250/oculus-rift-launch-makes-a-splash-will-it-lead-a-wave-of-vr-tech Robert Harrison
2016 Google develops AlphaGo and defeats the world champion. https://deepmind.com/research/alphago/ Vanshaj Chowdhary Gianluca Tarquinio Ian MacGregor
2016 First Reported Case of Fraud Involving Bitcoin, says Indian City’s Police https://www.cryptocoinsnews.com/first-reported-fraud-case-involving-bitcoin-says-indian-citys-police/ Xiaojun Wang
2016 Microsoft Develops AI to Help Cancer Doctors Find the Right Treatments. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-09-20/microsoft-develops-ai-to-help-cancer-doctors-find-the-right-treatments Nan Hu
2016 Microsoft releases Twitter AI Tay that learns from conversations, taken down a day later after it quickly devolves into hate speech https://www.theverge.com/2016/3/24/11297050/tay-microsoft-chatbot-racist Ian MacGregor
2016 Predicting judicial decisions of the European Court of Human Rights: a Natural Language Processing perspective. https://peerj.com/articles/cs-93/ Nan Hu
2016 Moving forward: Self-driving vehicles in China, Europe, Japan, Korea, and the United States. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/driverless-cars-3-ed.pdf Nan Hu
2016 Pokemon Go is released and sees massive success among the public http://www.businessofapps.com/pokemon-go-usage-revenue-statistics/ Robert Harrison
2017 CEA-LIST Interactive Simulation Laboratory in France develops a "miniature haptic interface for the fingertips." This interface is intended for use with VR devices. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/7989971/ Albert Enyedy
2017 Google's AlphaGo defeats world's best Go player Ke Jie https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/may/23/alphago-google-ai-beats-ke-jie-china-go Long Vu
2017 Elon Musk's startup OpenAI defeats world's best professional DOTA players https://www.theverge.com/2017/8/11/16137388/dota-2-dendi-open-ai-elon-musk Long Vu
2017 iCub is designed to be the first flying humanoid robot. https://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/humanoids/jet-powered-icub-could-be-the-first-flying-humanoid-robot Matthew LeMay
2017 WannaCry ransomware attack exploits XP vulnerability found by NSA https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2017/05/12/one-of-the-most-important-lessons-of-the-crippling-malicious-software-crisis/?utm_term=.ceb2e3b03aeb Spencer Beaupre