Difference between revisions of "Timeline"

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<p>Add your items to the list of events below.</p>
+
Add your items to the list of events below.
<ol>
+
# Preserve the order of events
  <li>Preserve the order of events</li>
+
# Include date for each entry
  <li>Include date for each entry</li>
+
# Provide references
  <li>Provide references</li>
+
# Please cite your additions using your WPI user name
  <li>Please cite your additions using your WPI user name</li>
+
# If event already present, make any additions and cite modifications
  <li>If event already present, make any additions and cite modifications</li>
+
 
</ol>
+
{| class="wikitable" style="word-break:break-word; table-layout: fixed; width: 100%;"
<table style="text-align: left; border-spacing: 0; border-width: 1">
+
|+ Computing Technology Timeline
  <caption style="text-align: center;">
+
|-
    <b>Computing Technology Time Line</b>
+
! scope="col" style="width: 7%;" | Date  
  </caption>
+
! scope="col" style="width: 55%;" | Description
  <tr>
+
! scope="col" style="width: 30%;" | References
    <th style="text-align: center;">Date</th>
+
! scope="col" style="width: 8%;" | Contributors
    <th style="text-align: center;">Description</th>
+
 
    <th style="text-align: center;">References</th>
+
|-
    <th style="text-align: center;">Contributers</th>
+
|3,300,00 BC
  </tr>
+
|Earliest evidence of stone tools being created by hominids
  <tr>
+
|
    <td>200,000 BC</td>
+
|prlee
    <td>Humans invented speech, the first form of communication</td>
+
 
    <td> </td>
+
|-
    <td>epguleksen</td>
+
|200,000 BC
   </tr>
+
| Humans developed spoken language, the first form of communication
  <tr>
+
| C. Perreault and S. Matthew, "Dating the Origin of Language Using Phonemic Diversity," PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 4, 2012.
    <td>Prehistoric</td>
+
|epguleksen prlee
    <td>Smoke signals were used to convey messages over long distances</td>
+
    
    <td> </td>
+
|-
    <td>emilymiller</td>
+
|Prehistoric
   </tr>
+
|Smoke signals were used to convey messages over long distances
<tr>
+
|
<td>2000 BC</td>
+
|emilymiller
<td>The abacus is invented. A frame made out of wood holding rods with sliding beads on them, used to aid in arithmetic calculations.</td>
+
    
<td>http://www.ee.ryerson.ca/~elf/abacus/history.html Visited: 9/3/2015</td>
+
|-
<td>dssilva</td>
+
|3150 BC
</tr>
+
|Estimated origin of Sumerian writings, the first written language
<tr>
+
| D. Schmandt-Besserat, "Decipherment of the Earliest Tablets," Science, vol. 211, no. 4479, pp. 283-285, 1981.
<td>1900 BC</td>
+
|prlee
<td>First documented cryptograph was found in Egypt</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>zhenhe</td>
+
|3500 BC
</tr>
+
|The sundial is invented. The first one was made from stone and uses the sun to tell time.
<tr>
+
|http://www.historyofwatch.com/clock-history/ Visited: 3/23/2018
<td>1500 BC</td>
+
|lgrande
<td>Mesopotamian tablet with encrypted recipe for pottery glaze</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>zhenhe</td>
+
|2400BC
</tr>
+
|First documented use of couriers being used to carry messages long distance
<tr>
+
|Alex Thompson, A Brief History of Long Distance Communication, https://www.wilsonamplifiers.com/blog/a-brief-history-of-long-distance-communication/
<td>1050 BC</td>
+
|nvanstralen
<td>The first alphabet based on phonetic sounds invented.</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>epguleksen</td>
+
|2000 BC
</tr>
+
|The abacus is invented. A frame made out of wood holding rods with sliding beads on them, used to aid in arithmetic calculations.
<tr>
+
|http://www.ee.ryerson.ca/~elf/abacus/history.html Visited: 9/3/2015
<td>~1000 BC</td>
+
|dssilva
<td>Shorthand first used</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>bjsharron</td>
+
|1900 BC
</tr>
+
|First documented cryptograph was found in Egypt
<tr>
+
| Retrieved August 30, 2018, from https://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/vpns/history-encryption-730
<td>950 BC</td>
+
|zhenhe, etarthur
<td>King Solomon used pigeon post to get information around Achaemenid Persian Empire.</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>tpatikorn</td>
+
|1700 BC
</tr>
+
|Evidence of indoor plumbing found on Crete
<tr>
+
|http://www.partselect.ca/Resources/Appliances-Timeline-Of-Their-Arrival.aspx
<td>600 BC</td>
+
|mjmcdonald
<td>Hebrew ATBASH cipher used in writing the book of Jeremiah</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>zhenhe</td>
+
|1500 BC
</tr>
+
|Mesopotamian tablet with encrypted recipe for pottery glaze
<tr>
+
|
<td>600 BC</td>
+
|zhenhe
<td>Mail was used among Chinese officials</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>emilymilller</td>
+
|1050 BC
</tr>
+
|The first alphabet based on phonetic sounds invented.
<tr>
+
|
<td>500 BC</td>
+
|epguleksen
<td>Pigeon post is used regularly</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>emilymiller</td>
+
|~1000 BC
</tr>
+
|Shorthand first used
<tr>
+
|
<td>490 BC</td>
+
|bjsharron
<td>Pheidippides carried a message from the Battle of Marathon to Athens.</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>tpatikorn</td>
+
|950 BC
</tr>
+
|King Solomon used pigeon post to get information around Achaemenid Persian Empire.
<tr>
+
|
<td>486 BC</td>
+
|tpatikorn
<td>Greek Skytale presumably used</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>zhenhe</td>
+
|750 BC
</tr>
+
|The Greeks adapted the earlier Phoenician alphabet into the Greek alphabet, and transcribed some works originally passed down through oral tradition, such as The Iliad
<tr>
+
| R. D. Woodard, "The Alphabet," in Greek Writing from Knossos to Homer : A Linguistic Interpretation of the Origin of the Greek Alphabet and the Continuity of Ancinet Greek Literacy, Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 1997, pp. 133-204.
<td>400 BC</td>
+
|ygong5 prlee
<td>Camera Obscura-The phenomena that led to the invention of the camera and all photographic processes. A small hole was placed through a wall in a dark room and light would fill the room with an upside-down projection of the view from outside.</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>tjstone</td>
+
|600 BC
</tr>
+
|Hebrew ATBASH cipher used in writing the book of Jeremiah
<tr>
+
|
<td>350 BC</td>
+
|zhenhe
<td>The Greek mathematician Archytas builds a mechanical bird dubbed "The Pigeon" that is propelled by steam.</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>eosowski</td>
+
|600 BC
</tr>
+
|Mail was used among Chinese officials
<tr>
+
|
<td>322 BC</td>
+
|emilymilller
<td>Aristotle writes: "If every tool, when ordered, or even of its own accord, could do the work that befits it, then there would be no need either of apprentices for the master workers or of slaves for the lords."</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>eosowski</td>
+
|500 BC
</tr>
+
|Pigeon post is used regularly
<tr>
+
|
<td>60 BC</td>
+
|emilymiller
<td>Caesar Cipher introduced by Julius Caesar</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>zhenhe</td>
+
|490 BC
</tr>
+
|Pheidippides carried a message from the Battle of Marathon to Athens.
<tr>
+
|
<td>60 - 50 BC</td>
+
|tpatikorn
<td>Caesar Cipher introduced by Julius Caesar</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>zhenhe</td>
+
|486 BC
</tr>
+
|Greek Skytale presumably used
<tr>
+
|
<td>~790</td>
+
|zhenhe
<td>Vikings used the stars and sun compasses with landmarks to navigate the seas.</td>
+
 
<td>Irene Berg Petersen, How Vikings navigated the world, http://sciencenordic.com/how-vikings-navigated-world (March 23, 2017)</td>
+
|-
<td>rmwiesenberg</td>
+
|450BC
</tr>
+
|shields possibly used to send signals like a modern heliograph
<tr>
+
|The Heliograph, http://www.douglas-self.com/MUSEUM/COMMS/heliograph/heliograph.htm
<td>~1000</td>
+
|nvanstralen
<td>The compass was invented in China and spread to Europe by 1300</td>
+
 
<td>Smithsonian, Time and Navigation: The untold story of getting from here to there., http://timeandnavigation.si.edu (March 23, 2017)</td>
+
|-
<td>rmwiesenberg</td>
+
|400 BC
</tr>
+
|Camera Obscura-The phenomena that led to the invention of the camera and all photographic processes. A small hole was placed through a wall in a dark room and light would fill the room with an upside-down projection of the view from outside.
<tr>
+
|
<td>1280</td>
+
|tjstone
<td>The first mechanical clock was created but it was too expensive and crude for navigation</td>
+
 
<td>Smithsonian, Time and Navigation: The untold story of getting from here to there., http://timeandnavigation.si.edu (March 23, 2017)</td>
+
|-
<td>rmwiesenberg</td>
+
|350 BC
</tr>
+
|The Greek mathematician Archytas builds a mechanical bird dubbed "The Pigeon" that is propelled by steam.
<tr>
+
|
<td>1495</td>
+
|eosowski
<td>Leonardo DaVinci designs a mechanical device that looks like an armored knight and is designed to make it move like there is a real person inside.</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>eosowski</td>
+
|325 BC
</tr>
+
|The first water clock is invented using water drips to tell time.
<tr>
+
|https://www.nist.gov/pml/walk-through-time-early-clocks Visited: 3/23/2018
<td>1500</td>
+
|lgrande
<td>Leonardo Da Vinci hypothesizes a way to track a roman soldiers steps and records the first idea of a pedometer</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>tjaskoviak</td>
+
|322 BC
</tr>
+
|Aristotle writes: "If every tool, when ordered, or even of its own accord, could do the work that befits it, then there would be no need either of apprentices for the master workers or of slaves for the lords."
<tr>
+
|
<td>1553</td>
+
|eosowski
<td>Password idea introduced by Giovan Belaso</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>zhenhe</td>
+
|255BC
</tr>
+
|earliest surviving piece of mail
<tr>
+
| The History of Mail and the Postal System, https://www.thoughtco.com/history-of-mail-1992142
<td>1585</td>
+
|nvanstralen
<td>Blaise de Vigenere wrote a book on ciphers.</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>zhenhe</td>
+
|200 BC
</tr>
+
|The first libraries are created in the Hellenistic world
<tr>
+
|S. Johnstone, "A New History of Libraries and Books in the Hellenistic Period," Classical Antiquity, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 347-393, 2014.
<td>1600</td>
+
|prlee
<td>John Napier invents Napier's Bones, a mechanical device using rods or cylinders which slid together to do lattice multiplication and division on numbers.</td>
+
 
<td>http://www.thecorememory.com/TimeMachine.pdf Visited: 9/3/2015</td>
+
|-
<td>dssilva</td>
+
|100 BC
</tr>
+
|Antikythera Mechanism -- Ancient device used to calculate the position of moon, planets, and predict solar/lunar eclipses.
<tr>
+
|http://www.antikythera-mechanism.gr/system/files/0608_Nature.pdf
<td>1622</td>
+
|crmyers
<td>William Oughtred invents the slide rule. The device had two scales that could independently be slid, and the distance between the two could be read to view as multiplication or division.</td>
+
 
<td>http://www.oughtred.org/history.shtml Visited: 9/3/2015</td>
+
|-
<td>dssilva</td>
+
|60 BC
</tr>
+
|Caesar Cipher introduced by Julius Caesar
<tr>
+
|
<td>1623</td>
+
|zhenhe
<td>Wilhelm Schickard invents the Calculating Clock, which is considered to be the first mechanical calculator. The calculator utilized Napier's Bones as well as other mechanics to help with celestial calculations.</td>
+
 
<td>"The Time Machine." College English 31.5 (1970): 523. Web.Visited: 9/3/2015</td>
+
|-
<td>dssilva</td>
+
|60 - 50 BC
</tr>
+
|Caesar Cipher introduced by Julius Caesar
<tr>
+
| Churchhouse, R. (2002). Codes and ciphers Julius Caesar, the Enigma, and the internet . Cambridge ;: Cambridge University Press.
<td>1642</td>
+
|zhenhe, etarthur
<td>The Pascaline or Pascal's calculator was invented by mathematician Blaise Pascal. The hand cranked adding machine was very complex, using toothed wheels to do basic arithmetic with whole numbers.</td>
+
 
<td>"The Time Machine." College English 31.5 (1970): 523. Web.Visited: 9/3/2015</td>
+
|-
<td>dssilva</td>
+
|104 AD
</tr>
+
|First Census is taken under the rule of Caesar Augustus by Egyptian Edict
<tr>
+
| Wright, Ted. “Was There Really A Census During the Time of Caesar Augustus?” Cross Examined - Christian Apologetic Ministry | Frank Turek | Christian Apologetics | Christian |Apologetics Speakers, 10 Oct. 2018, crossexamined.org/really-census-time-caesar-augustus/.
<td>1657</td>
+
|xlmclean
<td>The pendulum clock was invented in 1657 but was never adopted for sea navigation due to the swaying of the boat.</td>
+
 
<td>Smithsonian, Time and Navigation: The untold story of getting from here to there., http://timeandnavigation.si.edu (March 23, 2017)</td>
+
 
<td>rmwiesenberg</td>
+
|350 AD
</tr>
+
|The Codex Sinaiticus, one of the earliest examples of a codex being used to hold writing, was written
<tr>
+
|"Collection Items: Codex Sinaiticus," British Library, [Online]. Available: https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/codex-sinaiticus. [Accessed 19 3 2019].
<td>1673</td>
+
|prlee
<td>The Stepped Reckoner is invented by German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz. The mechanical calculator utilized a long cylinder, called the Leibniz wheel, to do quick multiplication and addition.</td>
+
 
<td>"The Time Machine." College English 31.5 (1970): 523. Web.Visited: 9/3/2015</td>
+
|-
<td>dssilva</td>
+
|600 AD
</tr>
+
|The first candle clock is invented, using candles to keep track of time.
<tr>
+
|https://www.nist.gov/pml/walk-through-time-early-clocks Visited: 3/23/2018
<td>1683</td>
+
|lgrande
<td>Governor William Penn established Pennsylvania's first Post Office.</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>tpatikorn</td>
+
|~790
</tr>
+
|Vikings used the stars and sun compasses with landmarks to navigate the seas.
<tr>
+
|Irene Berg Petersen, How Vikings navigated the world, http://sciencenordic.com/how-vikings-navigated-world (March 23, 2017)
<td>1685</td>
+
|rmwiesenberg
<td>Portable Reflex Camera Obscura - This camera was small enough to transport, being two feet long and nine inches high. Light shined through a lens and onto a mirror, generating an image that was right side up instead of upside-down.</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>tjstone</td>
+
|800 AD
</tr>
+
|The first hourglass is invented, using sand to keep track of time.
<tr>
+
|http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/first-hourglass/ Visited: 3/23/2018
<td>1685</td>
+
|lgrande
<td>"Battery" used to describe a series of charged glass plates (capacitors).</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>djlaplante</td>
+
|~1000
</tr>
+
|The compass was invented in China and spread to Europe by 1300
<tr>
+
|Smithsonian, Time and Navigation: The untold story of getting from here to there., http://timeandnavigation.si.edu (March 23, 2017)
<td>1711</td>
+
|rmwiesenberg
<td>British used ship to carry letters; each letter cost one penny.</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>tpatikorn</td>
+
|~1100
</tr>
+
|Earliest identified printed advertisement created, “Jinan Liu’s Fine Needle Shop”
<tr>
+
|1. Unknown, Commercial Advertisement, depts.washington.edu/chinaciv/graph/tcommain.htm, 8/30/2018
<td>1714</td>
+
|jbbieber
<td>The British Parliament passed the Longitude Act which spurred the invention of the Sea Clock by John Harrington and the sextant by John bird, greatly increasing navigational accuracy.</td>
+
 
<td>Smithsonian, Time and Navigation: The untold story of getting from here to there., http://timeandnavigation.si.edu (March 23, 2017)</td>
+
|-
<td>rmwiesenberg</td>
+
|1200s AD
</tr>
+
|In medieval times, Automatons (human like figures that were powered by internal mechanisms, namely clockwork) were first invented.
<tr>
+
|https://www.robotshop.com/media/files/PDF/timeline.pdf Accessed 3/19/2019
<td>1748</td>
+
|rnbeaver
<td>"Battery" used to describe a series of charged glass plates (capacitors).</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>djlaplante</td>
+
|1200 AD
</tr>
+
|The first water/astronomical clock is invented, using water with assisting astronomical concepts.
<tr>
+
|http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac08 Visited: 3/23/2018
<td>1755</td>
+
|lgrande
<td>
+
 
 +
|-
 +
|1280
 +
|The first mechanical clock was created but it was too expensive and crude for navigation
 +
|Smithsonian, Time and Navigation: The untold story of getting from here to there., http://timeandnavigation.si.edu (March 23, 2017)
 +
|rmwiesenberg
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1300 AD
 +
|Paper becomes the dominant way of record keeping and writing in Europe
 +
|J. Hargrave, "Disruptive Technological History: Papermaking to Digital Printing," Journal of Scholarly Publishing, vol. 44, no. 3, 2013.
 +
|prlee
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1455
 +
|Johannes Gutenberg completed a printing press that would imprint pages using movable metal type.
 +
|
 +
|ygong5
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1495
 +
|Leonardo DaVinci designs a mechanical device that looks like an armored knight and is designed to make it move like there is a real person inside.
 +
|
 +
|eosowski
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1500
 +
|Leonardo Da Vinci hypothesizes a way to track a roman soldiers steps and records the first idea of a pedometer
 +
|
 +
|tjaskoviak
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1553
 +
|Password idea introduced by Giovan Belaso
 +
|
 +
|zhenhe
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1585
 +
|Blaise de Vigenere wrote a book on ciphers.
 +
|
 +
|zhenhe
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|16-1700s
 +
|maritime flags are independently developed by different countries for naval communication
 +
| The History Behind Nautical Flags, https://www.allstarflags.com/facts/history-behind-nautical-flags/
 +
|nvanstralen
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1600 AD
 +
|The first pendulum and spring clock is invented, pendulums and newly developed spring mechanisms to keep track of time.
 +
|http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac08 Visited: 3/23/2018
 +
|lgrande
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1600
 +
|John Napier invents Napier's Bones, a mechanical device using rods or cylinders which slid together to do lattice multiplication and division on numbers.
 +
|http://www.thecorememory.com/TimeMachine.pdf Visited: 9/3/2015
 +
|dssilva
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1622
 +
|William Oughtred invents the slide rule. The device had two scales that could independently be slid, and the distance between the two could be read to view as multiplication or division.
 +
|http://www.oughtred.org/history.shtml Visited: 9/3/2015
 +
|dssilva
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1623
 +
|Wilhelm Schickard invents the Calculating Clock, which is considered to be the first mechanical calculator. The calculator utilized Napier's Bones as well as other mechanics to help with celestial calculations.
 +
|"The Time Machine." College English 31.5 (1970): 523. Web.Visited: 9/3/2015
 +
|dssilva
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1642
 +
|The Pascaline or Pascal's calculator was invented by mathematician Blaise Pascal. The hand cranked adding machine was very complex, using toothed wheels to do basic arithmetic with whole numbers.
 +
|"The Time Machine." College English 31.5 (1970): 523. Web.Visited: 9/3/2015
 +
|dssilva
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1657
 +
|The pendulum clock was invented in 1657 but was never adopted for sea navigation due to the swaying of the boat.
 +
|Smithsonian, Time and Navigation: The untold story of getting from here to there., http://timeandnavigation.si.edu (March 23, 2017)
 +
|rmwiesenberg
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1673
 +
|The Stepped Reckoner is invented by German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz. The mechanical calculator utilized a long cylinder, called the Leibniz wheel, to do quick multiplication and addition.
 +
|"The Time Machine." College English 31.5 (1970): 523. Web.Visited: 9/3/2015
 +
|dssilva
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1683
 +
|Governor William Penn established Pennsylvania's first Post Office.
 +
|
 +
|tpatikorn
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1685
 +
|Portable Reflex Camera Obscura - This camera was small enough to transport, being two feet long and nine inches high. Light shined through a lens and onto a mirror, generating an image that was right side up instead of upside-down.
 +
|
 +
|tjstone
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1685
 +
|"Battery" used to describe a series of charged glass plates (capacitors).
 +
|
 +
|djlaplante
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1690
 +
|Newspapers are popularized in London
 +
|M. S. Dawson, "All the News That's Fit to Film? Copying the Nichols Collection of Early London Newspapers," Parergon, vol. 30, no. 2, 2013.
 +
|prlee
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1694
 +
|Gottfried Leibniz constructed Step Reckoner.
 +
|
 +
|ygong5
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1700s
 +
|Miniature automatons designed to look like humans and animals became popular toys for the upper-class.
 +
|https://www.robotshop.com/media/files/PDF/timeline.pdf Accessed 3/19/2019
 +
|rnbeaver
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1711
 +
|British used ship to carry letters; each letter cost one penny.
 +
|
 +
|tpatikorn
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1714
 +
|The British Parliament passed the Longitude Act which spurred the invention of the Sea Clock by John Harrington and the sextant by John bird, greatly increasing navigational accuracy.
 +
|Smithsonian, Time and Navigation: The untold story of getting from here to there., http://timeandnavigation.si.edu (March 23, 2017)
 +
|rmwiesenberg
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1738
 +
|Mechanical Duck was invented, sparking the beginning of the automata stage.
 +
| Aviv Gaon, The Singularity is Near, http://wpi.aci.info/view/15af7f26c8c00100002/15b4709e35500015c3ad447 
 +
|rjsthilaire
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1748
 +
|"Battery" used to describe a series of charged glass plates (capacitors).
 +
|
 +
|djlaplante
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1755
 +
|
 
<p>Thomas Jefferson uses a pedometer, he would later introduce it to America. The strong association lead people to call them Tomish Meters</p>
 
<p>Thomas Jefferson uses a pedometer, he would later introduce it to America. The strong association lead people to call them Tomish Meters</p>
</td>
+
 
<td>
+
|
 
<p>Adams, W. H. (2000).<i>The Paris Years of Thomas Jefferson</i>. Yale University Press.</p>
 
<p>Adams, W. H. (2000).<i>The Paris Years of Thomas Jefferson</i>. Yale University Press.</p>
</td>
+
 
<td>tjaskoviak</td>
+
|tjaskoviak
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1763</td>
+
|1763
<td>Bayes theorem of conditional probability</td>
+
|Bayes theorem of conditional probability
<td>Price, Problem in the Doctrine of Chances, http://www.stat.ucla.edu/history/essay.pdf</td>
+
|Price, Problem in the Doctrine of Chances, http://www.stat.ucla.edu/history/essay.pdf
<td>xjjackson</td>
+
|xjjackson
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1769</td>
+
|1769
<td>Wolfgang Ritter von Kempelen created one of the first known devices capable of mimicking human speech. The human operated device imitated human body parts required for speech to produce sounds that resembled vowels.</td>
+
|Wolfgang Ritter von Kempelen created one of the first known devices capable of mimicking human speech. The human operated device imitated human body parts required for speech to produce sounds that resembled vowels.
<td>Schroeder, Manfred Robert. "A Brief History of Speech." Computer Speech: Recognition, Compression, Synthesis. Berlin: Springer, 1999. N. pag. Print.</td>
+
|Schroeder, Manfred Robert. "A Brief History of Speech." Computer Speech: Recognition, Compression, Synthesis. Berlin: Springer, 1999. N. pag. Print.
<td>leantul</td>
+
|leantul
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1775</td>
+
|1775
<td>Benjamin Franklin appointed first Postmaster General (USPS).</td>
+
|Benjamin Franklin appointed first Postmaster General (USPS).
<td> </td>
+
|
<td>tpatikorn</td>
+
|tpatikorn
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1775</td>
+
|1775
<td>Thomas Jefferson invented the wheel cipher.</td>
+
|Thomas Jefferson invented the wheel cipher.
<td> </td>
+
|
<td>zhenhe</td>
+
|zhenhe
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1779</td>
+
|1779
<td>Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein created thin devices of various shapes that were able to create sounds resembling German vowels through vibration.</td>
+
|Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein created thin devices of various shapes that were able to create sounds resembling German vowels through vibration.
<td>Schroeder, Manfred Robert. "A Brief History of Speech." Computer Speech: Recognition, Compression, Synthesis. Berlin: Springer, 1999. N. pag. Print.</td>
+
|Schroeder, Manfred Robert. "A Brief History of Speech." Computer Speech: Recognition, Compression, Synthesis. Berlin: Springer, 1999. N. pag. Print.
<td>leantul</td>
+
|leantul
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1800</td>
+
|1782
<td>Alessandro Volta discovers the Voltaic Pile. Electricity generation now efficient</td>
+
|First washing machine invented by Henry Sidgier
<td> </td>
+
|http://www.partselect.ca/Resources/Appliances-Timeline-Of-Their-Arrival.aspx
<td>djlaplante</td>
+
|mjmcdonald
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1801</td>
+
|1790s
<td>Joseph Jacquard builds an automated loom that is controlled by punch cards.</td>
+
|French begin construction of the semaphore towers serving as the first telegraph towers
<td> </td>
+
| Michael J. Quinn, Ethics for the Information Age, pages 21-3
<td>eosowski</td>
+
|nvanstralen
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1805</td>
+
|1799
<td>Legendre published first paper on regression analysis, using a technique called the method of least squares</td>
+
|First dried invented by a Frenchman named Pochon
<td>Smith, Legendre, http://www.stat.ucla.edu/history/legendre.pdf</td>
+
|http://www.partselect.ca/Resources/Appliances-Timeline-Of-Their-Arrival.aspx
<td>xjjackson</td>
+
|mjmcdonald
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1811</td>
+
|1799
<td>Steamboats started replacing rafts and boats in rivers in US.</td>
+
|Lithographic Offset printing is invented, reducing the cost of printing and increasing the speed of dissemination of information
<td> </td>
+
|J. Hargrave, "Disruptive Technological History: Papermaking to Digital Printing," Journal of Scholarly Publishing, vol. 44, no. 3, 2013.
<td>tpatikorn</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1816</td>
+
|1799
<td>First Photographic Negatives -Through experimentation, Nicephore Niepce is able to expose an image onto paper coated with light-sensitive silver chloride.</td>
+
|Alessandro Volta created the world’s first battery.
<td> </td>
+
|
<td>tjstone</td>
+
|ygong5
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1820</td>
+
|1800
<td>The Arithmometer becomes the first commercially successful mechanical calculator patented.</td>
+
|Alessandro Volta discovers the Voltaic Pile. Electricity generation now efficient
<td>http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015</td>
+
|
<td>dssilva</td>
+
|djlaplante
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1822</td>
+
|1801
<td>Charles Babbage demonstrates a prototype of his "Difference Engine" to the Royal Astronomical Society.</td>
+
|Joseph Jacquard builds an automated loom that is controlled by punch cards.
<td> </td>
+
|
<td>eosowski</td>
+
|eosowski
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1826</td>
+
|1805
<td>First Photograph - Nicephore Niepce took the first permanent, positive image using a camera obscura. The exposure lasted eight hours.</td>
+
|Legendre published first paper on regression analysis, using a technique called the method of least squares
<td> </td>
+
|Smith, Legendre, http://www.stat.ucla.edu/history/legendre.pdf
<td>tjstone</td>
+
|xjjackson
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1829</td>
+
|1811
<td>Braille invented</td>
+
|Steamboats started replacing rafts and boats in rivers in US.
<td> </td>
+
|
<td>bjsharron</td>
+
|tpatikorn
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1833</td>
+
|1815 AD
<td>Michael Faraday discovers a relationship between temperature and electrical conductivity in silver sulphide.</td>
+
|The first electrostatic clock is invented, using research on physics and electricity to develop clocks.
<td> </td>
+
|http://www.historyofwatch.com/clock-history/ Visited: 3/23/2018
<td>adurkee</td>
+
|lgrande
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1835</td>
+
|1816
<td>Alexander-Edmond Becquerel recorded the first instance of the photovoltaic effect.</td>
+
|First Photographic Negatives -Through experimentation, Nicephore Niepce is able to expose an image onto paper coated with light-sensitive silver chloride.
<td> </td>
+
|
<td>adurkee</td>
+
|tjstone
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1835</td>
+
|1820
<td>Samuel Morse creates Morse code for communication over wires</td>
+
|The Arithmometer becomes the first commercially successful mechanical calculator patented.
<td> </td>
+
|http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015
<td>mburns23</td>
+
|dssilva
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1836</td>
+
|1822
<td>Daniell Cell invented to fix the hydrogen bubble problem of the Voltaic Pile</td>
+
|Charles Babbage demonstrates a prototype of his "Difference Engine" to the Royal Astronomical Society.
<td> </td>
+
|
<td>djlaplante</td>
+
|eosowski
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1837</td>
+
|1822
<td>The Daguerreotype - Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre develops a way to drastically reduce exposure time and patents his discovery.</td>
+
|Joseph Fourier discovers Harmonic Analysis.
<td> </td>
+
|Fourier, Jean Baptiste Joseph (1822). Théorie analytique de la chaleur. Paris, France: Chez Firmin Didot, père et fils.
<td>tjstone</td>
+
|aperucic
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1838</td>
+
|1826
<td>US Congress designated all railroads as post routes.</td>
+
|First Photograph - Nicephore Niepce took the first permanent, positive image using a camera obscura. The exposure lasted eight hours.
<td> </td>
+
|
<td>tpatikorn</td>
+
|tjstone
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1838</td>
+
|1826
<td>William Robert Grove invented the fuel cell, which uses hydrogen and oxygen</td>
+
|Gas Stove patented by James Sharp
<td> </td>
+
|http://www.partselect.ca/Resources/Appliances-Timeline-Of-Their-Arrival.aspx
<td>djlaplante</td>
+
|mjmcdonald
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1838</td>
+
|1829
<td>Morse electric telegraph</td>
+
|Braille invented
<td> </td>
+
|
<td>emilymiller</td>
+
|bjsharron
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
 
<td>1838-1843</td>
+
|-
<td>Morse Code Developed</td>
+
|1832
<td> </td>
+
|Analytical Machine, a programmable mechanical calculator was designed
<td>bjsharron</td>
+
| https://www.britannica.com/technology/Analytical-Engine
</tr>
+
|rjsthilaire
<tr>
+
 
<td>1839</td>
+
 
<td>William Robert Grove invented the fuel cell, which uses hydrogen and oxygen</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1833
<td>djlaplante</td>
+
|Michael Faraday discovers a relationship between temperature and electrical conductivity in silver sulphide.
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|adurkee
<td>1839</td>
+
 
<td>Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel recorded the first instance of hte photovoltaic effect with silver chloride-coated platinum electrodes in an aqueous nitric acid electrolyte.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1835
<td>adurkee</td>
+
|Alexander-Edmond Becquerel recorded the first instance of the photovoltaic effect.
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|adurkee
<td>1841</td>
+
 
<td>Positive/Negative Process - William Henry Fox Talbot perfects a similar process to the Daguerreotype, however the exposure is negative. Therefore, multiple positive copies could be made of the same exposure. This becomes the primary method for all modern film development.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1835
<td>tjstone</td>
+
|Samuel Morse creates Morse code for communication over wires
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|mburns23
<td>1842</td>
+
 
<td>The Poggendorff cell is invented, providing higher voltage, consistent current, and fumeless, though delicate and more work to operate.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1836
<td>djlaplante</td>
+
|Daniell Cell invented to fix the hydrogen bubble problem of the Voltaic Pile
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|djlaplante
<td>1844</td>
+
 
<td>William Robert Grove invents the Grove Cell, which provides high current and doubles the voltage of the Daniell cell. However it is proven that when operated, the cell gives off toxic fumes.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1836
<td>djlaplante</td>
+
|French paper <i>La Presse</i> is the first to include paid advertising, soon to be copied by all other titles.
</tr>
+
|George T Kurian, World press encyclopedia (1982) 1: 341-42.
<tr>
+
|jbbieber
<td>1844</td>
+
 
<td>Samuel Morse sends the first telegraph from Baltimore to Washington D.C.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1837
<td>mburns23</td>
+
|The Daguerreotype - Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre develops a way to drastically reduce exposure time and patents his discovery.
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|tjstone
<td>1844</td>
+
 
<td>Samuel F. B. Morse transmits the first viable telegraph message. Securities brokers quickly adopt the technology to send market quotations. The telegraph helps expand the stock market by making trades accessible to brokers and investors outside of New York.</td>
+
|-
<td>http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/timeline/crash/1/</td>
+
|1837
<td>tleung</td>
+
|Analytical Engine, a never-constructed machine designed by Charles Babbage, intended to perform near arbitrary computation.
</tr>
+
|http://www.computerhistory.org/babbage/engines/
<tr>
+
|crmyers
<td>1847</td>
+
 
<td>George Boole represents logic in mathematical form with Boolean Algebra</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1838
<td>eosowski</td>
+
|US Congress designated all railroads as post routes.
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|tpatikorn
<td>1849</td>
+
 
<td>Austria attacks Venice with unmanned balloons loaded with explosives. The first recorded example of unmanned ariel attacks.</td>
+
|-
<td>http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone</td>
+
|1838
<td>addresser</td>
+
|Stereoscopic viewers were invented and refined to create 3D pictures.
</tr>
+
|https://www.vrs.org.uk/virtual-reality/history.html
<tr>
+
|bmwaid
<td>1851</td>
+
 
<td>Amedee Mannheim standardizes the modern version of the slide rule with four scales most common for calculation problems. The ruler could calculate squares, square roots, and other basic arithmetic operations.</td>
+
|-
<td>http://www.oughtred.org/history.shtml Visited: 9/3/2015</td>
+
|1838
<td>dssilva</td>
+
|William Robert Grove invented the fuel cell, which uses hydrogen and oxygen
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|djlaplante
<td>1854</td>
+
 
<td>Charles Babbage reinvented the wheel cipher.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1838
<td>zhenhe</td>
+
|Morse electric telegraph
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|emilymiller
<td>1859</td>
+
 
<td>Gaston Plante invents a lead-acid battery that can be recharged (first rechargeable battery). This model battery is still in use today as car batteries.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1838-1843
<td>djlaplante</td>
+
|Morse Code Developed
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|bjsharron
<td>1860</td>
+
 
<td>Willoughby Smith records the first instance of photoconductivity in metals.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1839
<td>adurkee</td>
+
|William Robert Grove invented the fuel cell, which uses hydrogen and oxygen
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|djlaplante
<td>1860</td>
+
 
<td>The Pony Express is established as a mail service in the Western United States.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1839
<td>tpatikorn mburns23</td>
+
|Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel recorded the first instance of hte photovoltaic effect with silver chloride-coated platinum electrodes in an aqueous nitric acid electrolyte.
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|adurkee
<td>1860s</td>
+
 
<td>Gravity cell, an alternative version of the Daniell cell, is invented. It yielded a higher current and was easily constructed/refillable manually.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1841
<td>djlaplante</td>
+
|Positive/Negative Process - William Henry Fox Talbot perfects a similar process to the Daguerreotype, however the exposure is negative. Therefore, multiple positive copies could be made of the same exposure. This becomes the primary method for all modern film development.
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|tjstone
<td>1861</td>
+
 
<td>Samuel Morse Patents the design for the telegraph in America</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1842
<td>epguleksen</td>
+
|The Poggendorff cell is invented, providing higher voltage, consistent current, and fumeless, though delicate and more work to operate.
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|djlaplante
<td>1861</td>
+
 
<td>First Color Photograph - James Clerk Maxwell created the first color photograph by exposing the same picture three separate times with different colored filters. The three images were then combined to form a single color image.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1844
<td>tjstone</td>
+
|William Robert Grove invents the Grove Cell, which provides high current and doubles the voltage of the Daniell cell. However it is proven that when operated, the cell gives off toxic fumes.
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|djlaplante
<td>1861</td>
+
 
<td>The transcontinental telegraph wire is completed in US.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1844
<td>mburns23</td>
+
|Samuel Morse sends the first telegraph from Baltimore to Washington D.C.
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|mburns23
<td>1864</td>
+
 
<td>James Clerk Maxwell proved the existence of electromagnetic waves.</td>
+
|-
<td>http://www.itworld.com/article/2802953/mobile/a-brief-history-of-wireless-technology.html
+
|1844
</td>
+
|Samuel F. B. Morse transmits the first viable telegraph message. Securities brokers quickly adopt the technology to send market quotations. The telegraph helps expand the stock market by making trades accessible to brokers and investors outside of New York.
<td>zrrobbins</td>
+
|http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/timeline/crash/1/
</tr>
+
|tleung
<tr>
+
 
<td>1865</td>
+
|-
<td>Founding of WPI</td>
+
|1847
<td> </td>
+
|George Boole represents logic in mathematical form with Boolean Algebra
<td>jmforkey</td>
+
|
</tr>
+
|eosowski
<tr>
+
 
<td>1866</td>
+
|-
<td>Leclanche battery (aka the Zn/NH4Cl/C battery or the wet battery) invented, consistent and descent voltage, this became widely popular.</td>
+
|1849
<td> </td>
+
|Austria attacks Venice with unmanned balloons loaded with explosives. The first recorded example of unmanned ariel attacks.
<td>djlaplante</td>
+
|http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone
</tr>
+
|addresser
<tr>
+
 
<td>1870</td>
+
|-
<td>First Mechanical Typewriter put into production.</td>
+
|1850
<td> </td>
+
|The idea of using several exposures to adequately reproduce a too-extreme range of luminance was pioneered as early as the 1850s by Gustave Le Gray to render seascapes showing both the sky and the sea.
<td>fhunter</td>
+
|J. Paul Getty Museum. Gustave Le Gray, Photographer. July 9 – September 29, 2002. Retrieved September 14, 2008
</tr>
+
|fmo
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1873</td>
+
 
<td>Willoughby Smith discovers the photoconductivity of selenium, the first instance of recorded photoconductivity in metals.</td>
+
|1851
<td> </td>
+
|Amedee Mannheim standardizes the modern version of the slide rule with four scales most common for calculation problems. The ruler could calculate squares, square roots, and other basic arithmetic operations.
<td>adurkee</td>
+
|http://www.oughtred.org/history.shtml Visited: 9/3/2015
</tr>
+
|dssilva
<tr>
+
 
<td>1873</td>
+
|-
<td>Sholes and Glidden Typerwriter with querty keyboard put into production.</td>
+
|1854
<td> </td>
+
|Charles Babbage reinvented the wheel cipher.
<td>fhunter</td>
+
|
</tr>
+
|zhenhe
<tr>
+
 
<td>1874</td>
+
|-
<td>The first calculator using the pin-wheel principle, the Odhner calculator, is invented. Future calculators would use the same principle.</td>
+
|1855
<td>http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015</td>
+
|first international code for maritime signal flags drafted 
<td>dssilva</td>
+
| The History Behind Nautical Flags, https://www.allstarflags.com/facts/history-behind-nautical-flags/
</tr>
+
|nvanstralen
<tr>
+
 
<td>1874</td>
+
|-
<td>Carl Ferdinand Braun created the first semiconductor rectifier, the diode.</td>
+
|1859
<td> </td>
+
|Gaston Plante invents a lead-acid battery that can be recharged (first rechargeable battery). This model battery is still in use today as car batteries.
<td>adurkee</td>
+
|
</tr>
+
|djlaplante
<tr>
+
 
<td>1876</td>
+
|-
<td>Alexander Bell creates first working phone</td>
+
|1860
<td> </td>
+
|Willoughby Smith records the first instance of photoconductivity in metals.
<td>epguleksen</td>
+
|
</tr>
+
|adurkee
<tr>
+
 
<td>1877</td>
+
|-
<td>Thomas Edison reveals the phonograph to record and play back sounds. A cylinder rotates as a needle presses against it. The needle vibrates due to sound and leaves wave patterns in the cylinder, leaving a recording of sound. He showed his phonograph in the New York office of Scientific American Magazine. Frenchman Charles Cros also claimed to have invented phonograph because he described a similar concept earlier than Edison. Interestingly, Edison did not work hard to commercialize the phonograph.</td>
+
|1860
<td> </td>
+
|The Pony Express is established as a mail service in the Western United States.
<td>rpdabrowski</td>
+
|
</tr>
+
|tpatikorn mburns23
<tr>
+
 
<td>1877</td>
+
|-
<td>The first dry cell battery is invented (improved by 1887), became very popular due to ease of use.</td>
+
|1860s
<td> </td>
+
|Gravity cell, an alternative version of the Daniell cell, is invented. It yielded a higher current and was easily constructed/refillable manually.
<td>djlaplante</td>
+
|
</tr>
+
|djlaplante
<tr>
+
 
<td>1878</td>
+
|-
<td>Ramon de Verea invents the first direct multiplication machine. This computation method was faster than previous methods.</td>
+
|1861
<td>http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015</td>
+
|Samuel Morse Patents the design for the telegraph in America
<td>dssilva</td>
+
|
</tr>
+
|epguleksen
<tr>
+
 
<td>1878</td>
+
|-
<td>The first music is put on record: cornetist Jules Levy plays "Yankee Doodle."</td>
+
|1861
<td>Bruck, J., Grundy, A., &amp; Joel, I. (1999, October 17). An Audio Timeline. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from http://www.aes.org/aeshc/docs/audio.history.timeline.html</td>
+
|First Color Photograph - James Clerk Maxwell created the first color photograph by exposing the same picture three separate times with different colored filters. The three images were then combined to form a single color image.
<td>cwjacobsohn</td>
+
|
</tr>
+
|tjstone
<tr>
+
 
<td>1880</td>
+
|-
<td>The telephone network starts to become substantial with more than 50,000 telephone lines existing in the United States.</td>
+
|1861
<td>Shinder, Debra L., Computer Networking Essentials (Cisco Press, 2001), 3. http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/book/networking/1587130386/introduction-to-pc-networking/3?uicode=wpi (9/2/2015)</td>
+
|The transcontinental telegraph wire is completed in US.
<td>svadlamudi</td>
+
|
</tr>
+
|mburns23
<tr>
+
 
<td>1880</td>
+
|-
<td>Chichester Bell and Charles Tainter improve on the phonograph by using a wax cylinder instead of tin foil and by using a floating stylus to incise, rather than indent, the cylinder. This improved device was called a graphophone.</td>
+
|1864
<td>History of the Cylinder. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from https://www.loc.gov/collections/edison-company-motion-pictures-and-sound-recordings/articles-and-essays/history-of-edison-sound-recordings/history-of-the-cylinder-phonograph/</td>
+
|James Clerk Maxwell proved the existence of electromagnetic waves.
<td>cwjacobsohn</td>
+
|http://www.itworld.com/article/2802953/mobile/a-brief-history-of-wireless-technology.html
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|zrrobbins
<td>1881</td>
+
 
<td>William Grylls Adams and Richard Evans Day discover that selenium produces electricity when in light.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1865
<td>adurkee</td>
+
|Founding of WPI
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|jmforkey
<td>1883</td>
+
 
<td>The world's first printing calculator, the Scheutz Difference Engine, was invented.</td>
+
|-
<td>http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015</td>
+
|1865
<td>dssilva</td>
+
|The Steam Man is created by John Brainerd. Considered a novelty item at the time, it was a 10 foot tall man looking machine that was used to pull carts.
</tr>
+
|http://timetunnel.bigredhair.com/steamman/index.html Visited on 3/19/2019
<tr>
+
|rnbeaver
<td>1883</td>
+
 
<td>Charles Fritts creats the first photovoltaic cell by melting thin sheets of selenium on a metal substrate and placing a thin gold leaf on top of the selenium.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1866
<td>adurkee</td>
+
|Leclanche battery (aka the Zn/NH4Cl/C battery or the wet battery) invented, consistent and descent voltage, this became widely popular.
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|djlaplante
<td>1885</td>
+
 
<td>Roll Film - Instead of glass, paper, or other expensive materials, George Eastman and William H. Walker develop the first roll of film and a camera to use it with. The Kodak camera was born.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1866
<td>tjstone</td>
+
|The first automobile (three wheeled Motor Car) was patented by Karl Benz.
</tr>
+
|https://www.livescience.com/37538-who-invented-the-car.html (Accessed March 21, 2018)
<tr>
+
|anpennie
<td>1887</td>
+
 
<td>The Comptometer, the first key-driven adding and calculating machine, is invented by Dorr Felt.</td>
+
|-
<td>http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015</td>
+
|1868
<td>dssilva</td>
+
|The first commercially successful typewriter was invented by Christopher Latham Sholes.
</tr>
+
|https://patents.google.com/patent/US79265 (Accessed March 22nd, 2018)
<tr>
+
|jbbrown
<td>1887</td>
+
 
<td>
+
|-
 +
|1868 AD
 +
|The first wristwatch is invented, designed as a fashion accessory for women.
 +
|http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/23/fashion/wrist-watches-from-battlefield-to-fashion-accessory.html Visited: 3/23/2018
 +
|lgrande
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1870
 +
|First Mechanical Typewriter put into production.
 +
|
 +
|fhunter
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1872
 +
|Electric bread toaster invented by Maddy Kennedy in the United Kingdom
 +
|http://www.partselect.ca/Resources/Appliances-Timeline-Of-Their-Arrival.aspx
 +
|mjmcdonald
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1873
 +
|Willoughby Smith discovers the photoconductivity of selenium, the first instance of recorded photoconductivity in metals.
 +
|
 +
|adurkee
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1873
 +
|Sholes and Glidden Typerwriter with querty keyboard put into production.
 +
|
 +
|fhunter
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1874
 +
|The first calculator using the pin-wheel principle, the Odhner calculator, is invented. Future calculators would use the same principle.
 +
|http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015
 +
|dssilva
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1874
 +
|Carl Ferdinand Braun created the first semiconductor rectifier, the diode.
 +
|
 +
|adurkee
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1875
 +
|telephone patented by Alexander Graham Bell
 +
|Alex Thompson, A Brief History of Long Distance Communication, https://www.wilsonamplifiers.com/blog/a-brief-history-of-long-distance-communication/
 +
|nvanstralen
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1876
 +
|Alexander Bell creates first working phone
 +
|
 +
|epguleksen
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1876
 +
|First Electric Refrigerator invented by German scientist Carl Von Linde
 +
|http://www.partselect.ca/Resources/Appliances-Timeline-Of-Their-Arrival.aspx
 +
|mjmcdonald
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1877
 +
|Thomas Edison reveals the phonograph to record and play back sounds. A cylinder rotates as a needle presses against it. The needle vibrates due to sound and leaves wave patterns in the cylinder, leaving a recording of sound. He showed his phonograph in the New York office of Scientific American Magazine. Frenchman Charles Cros also claimed to have invented phonograph because he described a similar concept earlier than Edison. Interestingly, Edison did not work hard to commercialize the phonograph.
 +
|
 +
|rpdabrowski
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1877
 +
|The first dry cell battery is invented (improved by 1887), became very popular due to ease of use.
 +
|
 +
|djlaplante
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1878
 +
|Ramon de Verea invents the first direct multiplication machine. This computation method was faster than previous methods.
 +
|http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015
 +
|dssilva
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1878
 +
|The first music is put on record: cornetist Jules Levy plays "Yankee Doodle."
 +
|Bruck, J., Grundy, A., &amp; Joel, I. (1999, October 17). An Audio Timeline. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from http://www.aes.org/aeshc/docs/audio.history.timeline.html
 +
|cwjacobsohn
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1878
 +
|The QWERTY Keyboard Layout is invented by Christopher Latham Sholes. The layout is designed to reduce typewriter jamming.
 +
|
 +
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/fact-of-fiction-the-legend-of-the-qwerty-keyboard-49863249/ (Accessed March 22 2018)
 +
|jbbrown
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1879
 +
|James Ritty and his brother John constructed the first cash register.
 +
|
 +
|ygong5
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1879
 +
|Universal Postal union established
 +
| The History of Mail and the Postal System, https://www.thoughtco.com/history-of-mail-1992142
 +
|nvanstralen
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1880
 +
|The telephone network starts to become substantial with more than 50,000 telephone lines existing in the United States.
 +
|Shinder, Debra L., Computer Networking Essentials (Cisco Press, 2001), 3. http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/book/networking/1587130386/introduction-to-pc-networking/3?uicode=wpi (9/2/2015)
 +
|svadlamudi
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1880
 +
|Chichester Bell and Charles Tainter improve on the phonograph by using a wax cylinder instead of tin foil and by using a floating stylus to incise, rather than indent, the cylinder. This improved device was called a graphophone.
 +
|History of the Cylinder. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from https://www.loc.gov/collections/edison-company-motion-pictures-and-sound-recordings/articles-and-essays/history-of-edison-sound-recordings/history-of-the-cylinder-phonograph/
 +
|cwjacobsohn
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1881
 +
|William Grylls Adams and Richard Evans Day discover that selenium produces electricity when in light.
 +
|
 +
|adurkee
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1883
 +
|The world's first printing calculator, the Scheutz Difference Engine, was invented.
 +
|http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015
 +
|dssilva
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1883
 +
|Charles Fritts creats the first photovoltaic cell by melting thin sheets of selenium on a metal substrate and placing a thin gold leaf on top of the selenium.
 +
|
 +
|adurkee
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1885
 +
|Roll Film - Instead of glass, paper, or other expensive materials, George Eastman and William H. Walker develop the first roll of film and a camera to use it with. The Kodak camera was born.
 +
|
 +
|tjstone
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1885
 +
|Frank Reade jr. created the “Electric Man”, an electric Version of John Brainerd’s Steam Man
 +
|https://www.robotshop.com/media/files/PDF/timeline.pdf
 +
|rnbeaver
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1887
 +
|The Comptometer, the first key-driven adding and calculating machine, is invented by Dorr Felt.
 +
|http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015
 +
|dssilva
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1887
 +
|
 
Emile Berliner invents and patents the Gramophone, a non-wax disc photo-engraved with a lateral-cut groove.
 
Emile Berliner invents and patents the Gramophone, a non-wax disc photo-engraved with a lateral-cut groove.
</td>
 
<td>
 
  
Schoenherr, S. E. (2005, July 6). Recording Technology History. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from http://www.aes.org/aeshc/docs/recording.technology.history/notes.html</td>
+
|
<td>cwjacobsohn</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1887</td>
+
<td>
+
  
Heinrich Hertz produced, sent and received wireless waves using reflectors to amplify the waves</td>
+
Schoenherr, S. E. (2005, July 6). Recording Technology History. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from http://www.aes.org/aeshc/docs/recording.technology.history/notes.html
<td>
+
|cwjacobsohn
http://www.wirelesscommunication.nl/reference/chaptr07/history.htm </td>
+
<td>zrrobbins</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1888</td>
+
<td>Hertz demonstrates the existence of radio waves, prompting the search for suitable detectors.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>adurkee</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1888</td>
+
<td>Emile Berliner displays his invention, the record player, as an alternative to the phonograph.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>rpdabrowski</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1888</td>
+
<td>The Telautograph enabled written communication over long distances by the use of recorded electrical impulses that transmitted to the receiving telautograph.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>wtao</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1891</td>
+
<td>William Burroughs begins to commercial manufacture his adding calculator through the Burroughs Adding Machine Company. Calculators became commonplace in American business offices.</td>
+
<td>
+
  
</td>
+
|-
<td>dssilva</td>
+
|1887
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
<td>1892</td>
+
<td>Nikola Tesla experiments with energy frequency's, predicts that it could be used for telecommunications in the future</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td> </td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1890s</td>
+
<td>Phone is used more after the initial first patent expires</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>epguleksen</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1894</td>
+
<td>Berliner's company, the United States Gramophone Company, puts rubber gramophone discs on the market. These discs could be mass-produced, unlike cylinders at the time, and they were quickly adopted as a result.</td>
+
<td>Emile Berliner and the Birth of the Recording Industry. (2001, June). Retrieved March 21, 2016, from https://memory.loc.gov/ammem/berlhtml/berlhome.html</td>
+
<td>cwjacobsohn</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1895</td>
+
<td>Guglielmo Marconi creates first wireless system capable of transmitting a signal long distances</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>djlaplante</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1895</td>
+
<td>Waldmar Jungner invents a nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery. First alkaline battery. Very expensive however Much higher energy than any previous battery.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>djlaplante</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1896</td>
+
<td>
+
  
Guglielmo Marconi creates the first wireless telegraph system </td>
+
Heinrich Hertz produced, sent and received wireless waves using reflectors to amplify the waves
<td>http://www.wirelesshistoryfoundation.org/wireless-history-project/wireless-history-timeline
+
|
 +
http://www.wirelesscommunication.nl/reference/chaptr07/history.htm
 +
|zrrobbins
  
</td>
+
|-
<td>zrrobbins</td>
+
|1888
</tr>
+
|Hertz demonstrates the existence of radio waves, prompting the search for suitable detectors.
<tr>
+
|
<td>1897</td>
+
|adurkee
<td>Marconi demonstrated a radio transmission over 18 miles of the English Channel. The first wireless company, Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company was founded. </td>
+
<td>http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/24759</td>
+
<td>zrrobbins</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1897</td>
+
<td>
+
  
Karl Ferdinand Braun creates a cathode ray oscilloscope, the first applied use of CRT technology</td>
+
|-
<td>http://history-computer.com/ModernComputer/Basis/cathode.html</td>
+
|1888
<td>nadiaz</td>
+
|Emile Berliner displays his invention, the record player, as an alternative to the phonograph.
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|rpdabrowski
<td>1898</td>
+
<td>Valdemar Poulsen develops and patents the telegraphone, the first magnetic recorder, which works by magnetizing thin steel wire.</td>
+
<td>Morton, D. Inventing the Wire Recorder. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from http://www.recording-history.org/HTML/wire2.php</td>
+
<td>cwjacobsohn</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1898</td>
+
<td>Nikola Tesla builds and demonstrates a remote controlled robot boat at Madison Square Garden.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>eosowski</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1899</td>
+
<td>The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>mburns23</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1900</td>
+
<td>Thomas Lambert develops a method for mass-producing indestructible celluloid cylinder audio recordings.</td>
+
<td>Schoenherr, S. E. (2005, July 6). Recording Technology History. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from http://www.aes.org/aeshc/docs/recording.technology.history/notes.html</td>
+
<td>cwjacobsohn</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1901</td>
+
<td>Carl Ferdinand Braun uses semiconductor rectifiers to receive radio signals.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>adurkee</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1901</td>
+
<td>Marconi sends "first successful transatlantic radio communication". This helped him prove that the Earth's curvature does not affect radio signals.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>mburns23</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1902</td>
+
<td>Danish engineer, Valdmar Poulsen, invents Poulsen-Arc, a radio transmitter</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td> </td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1902</td>
+
<td>Edison introduces his own method for mass-producing hard wax cylinders.
+
  
</td>
+
|-
<td>Schoenherr, S. E. (2005, July 6). Recording Technology History. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from http://www.aes.org/aeshc/docs/recording.technology.history/notes.html</td>
+
|1888
<td>cwjacobsohn</td>
+
|The Telautograph enabled written communication over long distances by the use of recorded electrical impulses that transmitted to the receiving telautograph.
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|wtao
<td>1903</td>
+
 
<td>The nickel-iron battery is invented, light weight and durable, though not as powerful as alkaline.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1890
<td>djlaplante</td>
+
|Herman Hollerith created the most successful Mechanical tabulating machines.
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|ygong5
<td>1904</td>
+
 
<td>Welte in Freiburg, Germany succeeds in using perforated paper record and reproduce an original piano performance, essentially inventing the player piano.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1891
<td>rpdabrowski</td>
+
|William Burroughs begins to commercial manufacture his adding calculator through the Burroughs Adding Machine Company. Calculators became commonplace in American business offices.
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|
<td> 1905</td>
+
 
<td>John Fleming invents the Vacuum Tube</td>
+
 
<td>  
+
|dssilva
http://www.pbs.org/transistor/science/events/vacuumt.html</td>
+
 
<td>ajthompson</td>
+
|-
</tr>
+
|1891
<tr>
+
|The first electric car was built by William Morrison.
<td> 1906</td>
+
|https://www.livescience.com/37538-who-invented-the-car.html (Accessed March 21, 2018)
<td> William Randolph Hearst begins to use cylinder recordings of his speeches in his campaign for governor of New York.</td>
+
|anpennie
<td> Schoenherr, S. E. (2005, July 6). Recording Technology History. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from http://www.aes.org/aeshc/docs/recording.technology.history/notes.html</td>
+
 
<td> cwjacobsohn</td>
+
|-
</tr>
+
|1892
<tr>
+
|Nikola Tesla experiments with energy frequency's, predicts that it could be used for telecommunications in the future
<td>1906</td>
+
|
<td>After extensive testing of materials while working on wireless signals, Greenleaf Whittier Pickard discovers silicon crystals as the most stable of rectifiers for receiving wireless signals out of about 30000 materials.</td>
+
|
<td> </td>
+
 
<td>adurkee</td>
+
|-
</tr>
+
|1890s
<tr>
+
|Phone is used more after the initial first patent expires
<td>1906</td>
+
|
<td>First Audio Radio Broadcast is sent on December 24, 1906</td>
+
|epguleksen
<td> </td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
</tr>
+
|1894
<tr>
+
|Berliner's company, the United States Gramophone Company, puts rubber gramophone discs on the market. These discs could be mass-produced, unlike cylinders at the time, and they were quickly adopted as a result.
<td>1907</td>
+
|Emile Berliner and the Birth of the Recording Industry. (2001, June). Retrieved March 21, 2016, from https://memory.loc.gov/ammem/berlhtml/berlhome.html
<td>UPS was founded.</td>
+
|cwjacobsohn
<td> </td>
+
 
<td>tpatikorn</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1895
<td>1907</td>
+
|Wilhelm Rontgen discovers x-rays
<td>
+
|http://www.ncmedicaljournal.com/content/75/2/111.full.pd
Lee De Forest invents the triode tube, capable of not only acting as a diode, but also an amplifier for the signal passing through the tube.</td>
+
|lnguyen3
<td>
+
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1895
 +
|first radio signal sent and received by Guglielmo Marconi
 +
|http://www.ncmedicaljournal.com/content/75/2/111.full.pd
 +
|lnguyen3
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1895
 +
|Guglielmo Marconi creates first wireless system capable of transmitting a signal long distances
 +
|The Invention of Radio Technology, https://www.thoughtco.com/invention-of-radio-1992382
 +
|nvanstralen
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1895
 +
|Waldmar Jungner invents a nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery. First alkaline battery. Very expensive however Much higher energy than any previous battery.
 +
|
 +
|djlaplante
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1896
 +
|
 +
Guglielmo Marconi creates the first wireless telegraph system
 +
|http://www.wirelesshistoryfoundation.org/wireless-history-project/wireless-history-timeline
 +
 
 +
|zrrobbins
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1896
 +
|Samuel P. Language developed the first unmanned aerial vehicle. A steam-powered unmanned aircraft that flew for around 60 seconds above the Potomac River
 +
|https://airandspace.si.edu/collection-objects/langley-aerodrome-number-5 Visited: 3/23/2018
 +
|hdunphy
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1897
 +
|Marconi demonstrated a radio transmission over 18 miles of the English Channel. The first wireless company, Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company was founded.
 +
|http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/24759
 +
|zrrobbins
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1897
 +
|
 +
Karl Ferdinand Braun creates a cathode ray oscilloscope, the first applied use of CRT technology
 +
|http://history-computer.com/ModernComputer/Basis/cathode.html
 +
|nadiaz
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1898
 +
|Valdemar Poulsen develops and patents the telegraphone, the first magnetic recorder, which works by magnetizing thin steel wire.
 +
|Morton, D. Inventing the Wire Recorder. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from http://www.recording-history.org/HTML/wire2.php
 +
|cwjacobsohn
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1898
 +
|Nikola Tesla builds and demonstrates a remote controlled robot boat at Madison Square Garden.
 +
|
 +
|eosowski
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1899
 +
|The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell
 +
|
 +
|mburns23
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1900
 +
|Thomas Lambert develops a method for mass-producing indestructible celluloid cylinder audio recordings.
 +
|Schoenherr, S. E. (2005, July 6). Recording Technology History. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from http://www.aes.org/aeshc/docs/recording.technology.history/notes.html
 +
|cwjacobsohn
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1900
 +
|The first hybrid car was invented by Ferdinand Porsche.
 +
|https://www.livescience.com/37538-who-invented-the-car.html (Accessed March 21, 2018)
 +
|anpennie
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1901
 +
|Carl Ferdinand Braun uses semiconductor rectifiers to receive radio signals.
 +
|
 +
|adurkee
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1901
 +
|Marconi sends "first successful transatlantic radio communication". This helped him prove that the Earth's curvature does not affect radio signals.
 +
|
 +
|mburns23
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1902
 +
|Danish engineer, Valdmar Poulsen, invents Poulsen-Arc, a radio transmitter
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1902
 +
|Edison introduces his own method for mass-producing hard wax cylinders.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|Schoenherr, S. E. (2005, July 6). Recording Technology History. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from http://www.aes.org/aeshc/docs/recording.technology.history/notes.html
 +
|cwjacobsohn
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1902
 +
|Air Conditioner invented by Willis Haviland Carrier
 +
|http://www.partselect.ca/Resources/Appliances-Timeline-Of-Their-Arrival.aspx
 +
|mjmcdonald
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1902
 +
|First science fiction film released: the French <i>Le Voyage dans la Lune</i> (A Trip To The Moon)
 +
|http://brainknowsbetter.com/news/2014/2/21/georges-melies-a-trip-to-the-moon-reveals-the-psychology-of-film
 +
|kthooppalvasu
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1903
 +
|Einhoven creates electrocardiogram
 +
|http://smj.sma.org.sg/5301/5301ms1.pdfd
 +
|lnguyen3
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1903
 +
|The nickel-iron battery is invented, light weight and durable, though not as powerful as alkaline.
 +
|
 +
|djlaplante
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1904
 +
|Welte in Freiburg, Germany succeeds in using perforated paper record and reproduce an original piano performance, essentially inventing the player piano.
 +
|
 +
|rpdabrowski
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| 1905
 +
|John Fleming invents the Vacuum Tube
 +
|  
 +
http://www.pbs.org/transistor/science/events/vacuumt.html
 +
|ajthompson
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| 1906
 +
| William Randolph Hearst begins to use cylinder recordings of his speeches in his campaign for governor of New York.
 +
| Schoenherr, S. E. (2005, July 6). Recording Technology History. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from http://www.aes.org/aeshc/docs/recording.technology.history/notes.html
 +
| cwjacobsohn
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1906
 +
|After extensive testing of materials while working on wireless signals, Greenleaf Whittier Pickard discovers silicon crystals as the most stable of rectifiers for receiving wireless signals out of about 30000 materials.
 +
|
 +
|adurkee
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1906
 +
|First Audio Radio Broadcast is sent on December 24, 1906
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1906
 +
|Thaddeus Cahill invents the first polyphonic, touch-sensitive music synthesizer.
 +
|Weidenaar, Reynold (1995). Magic Music from the Telharmonium. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.
 +
|aperucic
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1907
 +
|UPS was founded.
 +
|
 +
|tpatikorn
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1907
 +
|
 +
Lee De Forest invents the triode tube, capable of not only acting as a diode, but also an amplifier for the signal passing through the tube.
 +
|
 
https://www.google.com/patents/US879532, Retrieved: March 21, 2016
 
https://www.google.com/patents/US879532, Retrieved: March 21, 2016
</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1911</td>
+
|1911
<td>Fred Wiseman flew with mails from Petaloma to Santa Rosa, California in 1911.</td>
+
|Torre's Automatic Chess Player
<td> </td>
+
|https://chessprogramming.wikispaces.com/El+Ajedrecista
<td>tpatikorn</td>
+
|awheeler2
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
 
<td>1913</td>
+
|-
<td>FedEx was founded.</td>
+
|1911
<td> </td>
+
|Fred Wiseman flew with mails from Petaloma to Santa Rosa, California in 1911.
<td>tpatikorn</td>
+
|
</tr>
+
|tpatikorn
<tr>
+
 
<td>1915</td>
+
|-
<td>Carl Benedicks found that germanium's resistance lay between that of silver and tin, and produced a diode using germanium, platinum, and copper.</td>
+
|1912
<td> </td>
+
|Creation of electric stove completed by Lloyd Groff Copeman
<td>adurkee</td>
+
|http://www.partselect.ca/Resources/Appliances-Timeline-Of-Their-Arrival.aspx
</tr>
+
|mjmcdonald
<tr>
+
 
<td>1915</td>
+
|-
<td>The automatic telephone exchange is created, removing the need for operators on every call.</td>
+
|1913
<td> </td>
+
|FedEx was founded.
<td>mburns23</td>
+
|
</tr>
+
|tpatikorn
<tr>
+
 
<td>1915</td>
+
|-
<td>British use ariel imagery to capture 1500 sky view maps of the German trench fortifications.</td>
+
|1913
<td>http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone</td>
+
|First refrigerator for home use created by Fred W. Wolf
<td>addresser</td>
+
|http://www.greatachievements.org/?id=3768
</tr>
+
|mjmcdonald
<tr>
+
 
<td>1916</td>
+
|-
<td>First 2 way radio test on naval warships</td>
+
|1913
<td> </td>
+
|First electric dishwasher on the market, created by Walker Brothers
<td>tasellielund23</td>
+
|http://www.greatachievements.org/?id=3768
</tr>
+
|mjmcdonald
<tr>
+
 
<td>1917</td>
+
 
<td>Vernam cipher invented</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1914
<td>zhenhe</td>
+
|First technical application of ultrasound (first working sonar system)
</tr>
+
|http://www.ob-ultrasound.net/history1.html
<tr>
+
|lnguyen3
<td>1918</td>
+
 
<td>The US creates ariel torpedoes that work as kamikaze drones. The war ended before these drones saw use.</td>
+
 
<td>http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone</td>
+
|-
<td>addresser</td>
+
|1915
</tr>
+
|Carl Benedicks found that germanium's resistance lay between that of silver and tin, and produced a diode using germanium, platinum, and copper.
<tr>
+
|
<td>1919</td>
+
|adurkee
<td>
+
 
 +
|-
 +
|1915
 +
|The automatic telephone exchange is created, removing the need for operators on every call.
 +
|
 +
|mburns23
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1915
 +
|British use ariel imagery to capture 1500 sky view maps of the German trench fortifications.
 +
|http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone
 +
|addresser
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1916
 +
|First 2 way radio test on naval warships
 +
|
 +
|tasellielund23
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1916
 +
|One of the first feature-length science fiction films released: 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea.
 +
|https://publicdomainreview.org/collections/20000-leagues-under-the-sea-1916/
 +
|kthooppalvasu
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1917
 +
|Vernam cipher invented
 +
|
 +
|zhenhe
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1918
 +
|The US creates ariel torpedoes that work as kamikaze drones. The war ended before these drones saw use.
 +
|http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone
 +
|addresser
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1919
 +
|
 
<p>  
 
<p>  
  
 
Walter H. Schottky invented the tetrode tube, an improvement over the triode, by adding an electrical screen between the control grid and the anode, which decouples the two to allow for higher voltage gains with a single tube. </p>
 
Walter H. Schottky invented the tetrode tube, an improvement over the triode, by adding an electrical screen between the control grid and the anode, which decouples the two to allow for higher voltage gains with a single tube. </p>
</td>
+
 
<td>
+
|
 
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6218283
 
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6218283
<br /></td>
+
<br />
<td>ajthompson</td>
+
|ajthompson
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1920</td>
+
|1920
<td>The very first radio news program is broadcast</td>
+
|The very first radio news program is broadcast, signaling radio as the new dominant medium for entertainment, news, and accessibility of information
<td> </td>
+
|
<td> </td>
+
| prlee
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1920</td>
+
|1920
<td>John Hugo Mfg. Co. developed a toy for young children called Radio Rex that would move forward when the dog's name, Rex, was called.</td>
+
|John Hugo Mfg. Co. developed a toy for young children called Radio Rex that would move forward when the dog's name, Rex, was called.
<td>Gold, Bernard, Nelson Morgan, and Dan Ellis. "Chapter 4: Brief History of Automatic Speech Recognition." Speech and Audio Signal Processing: Processing and Perception of Speech and Music. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2011. N. pag. Print.</td>
+
|Gold, Bernard, Nelson Morgan, and Dan Ellis. "Chapter 4: Brief History of Automatic Speech Recognition." Speech and Audio Signal Processing: Processing and Perception of Speech and Music. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2011. N. pag. Print.
<td>leantul</td>
+
|leantul
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
 
<td>1921</td>
+
|-
<td>One of the first radio stations to host music program airs under the name 'WJZ'</td>
+
|1920
<td> </td>
+
|European cinema diverges from American cinema in using science fiction for social commentary. Example: Aelita: Queen of Mars
<td> </td>
+
|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_science_fiction_films#Silent%20film. Aelita: http://sensesofcinema.com/2010/cteq/aelita-queen-of-mars/
</tr>
+
|kthooppalvasu
<tr>
+
 
<td>1921</td>
+
 
<td>Czech writer Karel Capek introduces the word "Robot" in his play "R.U.R"(Rossuum's Universal Robots)" "Robot in Czech comes from the word "robota" meaning "compulsory labor"</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1921
<td>eosowski</td>
+
|One of the first radio stations to host music program airs under the name 'WJZ'
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|
<td>1921</td>
+
 
<td>First try of car-to car radio</td>
+
|-
<td> (2016, May 19). In 1921 first car-to-car radios are used. by Gyasi C. on Prezi. Retrieved March 24, 2017, from https://prezi.com/0c6dbmxmfen3/in-1921-first-car-to-car-radios-are-used/</td>
+
|1921
<td>yzhou8</td>
+
|Czech writer Karel Capek introduces the word "Robot" in his play "R.U.R"(Rossuum's Universal Robots)" "Robot in Czech comes from the word "robota" meaning "compulsory labor"
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|eosowski
<td>1922</td>
+
 
<td>Bell Telephone Laboratories develops and produces a "condenser microphone," which is designed to better reduce distortion, increase bass response, and capture more of the highs and lows of sound. Arthur Scerbius built the German Enigma machine.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1921
<td>zhenhe</td>
+
|First try of car-to car radio
</tr>
+
| (2016, May 19). In 1921 first car-to-car radios are used. by Gyasi C. on Prezi. Retrieved March 24, 2017, from https://prezi.com/0c6dbmxmfen3/in-1921-first-car-to-car-radios-are-used/
<tr>
+
|yzhou8
<td>1922</td>
+
 
<td>BBC broadcasts first radio program</td>
+
|-
<td>http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/24759</td>
+
|1922
<td>zrrobbins</td>
+
|Bell Telephone Laboratories develops and produces a "condenser microphone," which is designed to better reduce distortion, increase bass response, and capture more of the highs and lows of sound. Arthur Scerbius built the German Enigma machine.
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|zhenhe
<td>1923</td>
+
 
<td>First electric key punch is designed by IBM.  This was one of the earliest machines that could be used to create data and input for computers.</td>
+
|-
<td> http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/history/year_1923.html (accessed March 21, 2016).</td>
+
|1922
<td>djkiourtsis</td>
+
|BBC broadcasts first radio program
</tr>
+
|http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/24759
<tr>
+
|zrrobbins
<td>1924</td>
+
 
<td>Electric Recorders - The electronic amplifier by Western Electric inspired Columbia to develop electric recording technology. It turned out to be a huge success. The electronic recorders soon become more popular than traditional acoustic players.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1923
<td>bangyan</td>
+
|First electric key punch is designed by IBM.  This was one of the earliest machines that could be used to create data and input for computers.
</tr>
+
| http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/history/year_1923.html (accessed March 21, 2016).
<tr>
+
|djkiourtsis
<td>1925</td>
+
 
<td>35mm Film - Developed by Leica, this film size becomes the most popular size for amateur photographers.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1923
<td>tjstone</td>
+
| First prototype of the Enigma machine is invented sold as a commercial product by German engineer Arthur Scherbius.
</tr>
+
| Churchhouse, R. (2002). Codes and ciphers Julius Caesar, the Enigma, and the internet . Cambridge ;: Cambridge University Press.
<tr>
+
| etarthur
<td>1925</td>
+
 
<td>Houdina Radio Control demonstrates a radio controlled car called the Linriccan Wonder in New York City. The car is controlled by a passenger in a following car. </td>
+
|-
<td>Driverless Dreams: Technological Narratives and the Shape of the Automated Car. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2015. Pg. 11. http://www.estayton.com/Stayton_DriverlessDreams_May5_2015.pdf. </td>
+
|1924
<td>aaadkins</td>
+
|Electric Recorders - The electronic amplifier by Western Electric inspired Columbia to develop electric recording technology. It turned out to be a huge success. The electronic recorders soon become more popular than traditional acoustic players.
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|bangyan
<td>1926</td>
+
 
<td> Walter H. Schottky invented the tetrode tube, an improvement over the triode, by adding an electrical screen between the control grid and the anode, which decouples the two to allow for higher voltage gains with a single tube </td>
+
|-
<td>http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6218283
+
|1925
</td>
+
|35mm Film - Developed by Leica, this film size becomes the most popular size for amateur photographers.
<td>ajthompson</td>
+
|
</tr>
+
|tjstone
<tr>
+
 
<td>1927</td>
+
|-
<td>Plus four wristlet route indicator released </td>
+
|1925
<td> </td>
+
|Houdina Radio Control demonstrates a radio controlled car called the Linriccan Wonder in New York City. The car is controlled by a passenger in a following car.  
<td>hsahay</td>
+
|Driverless Dreams: Technological Narratives and the Shape of the Automated Car. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2015. Pg. 11. http://www.estayton.com/Stayton_DriverlessDreams_May5_2015.pdf.  
</tr>
+
|aaadkins
<tr>
+
 
<td>1928</td>
+
|-
<td>One-way police radio communication</td>
+
|1926
<td> </td>
+
| Walter H. Schottky invented the tetrode tube, an improvement over the triode, by adding an electrical screen between the control grid and the anode, which decouples the two to allow for higher voltage gains with a single tube  
<td> </td>
+
|http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6218283
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|ajthompson
<td>1928</td>
+
 
<td>The N.Y.S.E. introduces new and improved high-speed tickers. The devices can print 500 characters per minute, almost twice as fast as the earlier models.</td>
+
|-
<td>http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/timeline/crash/2/</td>
+
|1927
<td>tleung</td>
+
|Plus four wristlet route indicator released  
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|hsahay
<td>1930</td>
+
 
<td>Magnetic Recorders - Magnetic recording is widely used today for video and audio tape. It is actually introduced way back in the 1900s. However, it is in the 1930s that it truly becomes a popular recording way for the public and companies such as BBC. At that time, the best magnetic technology is in the hands of German companies.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1927
<td>bangyan</td>
+
| General George Squier patents technology allowing music to be transmitted over electrical lines
</tr>
+
|https://www.google.com/patents/US1641608?dq=1641608
<tr>
+
|egouveia
<td>1930</td>
+
 
<td>
+
|-
 +
|1928
 +
|One-way police radio communication
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1928
 +
|The N.Y.S.E. introduces new and improved high-speed tickers. The devices can print 500 characters per minute, almost twice as fast as the earlier models.
 +
|http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/timeline/crash/2/
 +
|tleung
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| 1928
 +
|Invention of magnetic tape for recording sound by Fritz Pfleumer in Germany
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1929
 +
|Edward Link developed the “Link Trainer”, a commercial flight simulator that simulated the movements of a plane in actual flight.
 +
|https://www.vrs.org.uk/virtual-reality/history.html
 +
|bmwaid
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1930
 +
|Magnetic Recorders - Magnetic recording is widely used today for video and audio tape. It is actually introduced way back in the 1900s. However, it is in the 1930s that it truly becomes a popular recording way for the public and companies such as BBC. At that time, the best magnetic technology is in the hands of German companies.
 +
|
 +
|bangyan
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1930
 +
|
  
The Hike-o-meter becomes popular in America with the growing popularity of walking</td>
+
The Hike-o-meter becomes popular in America with the growing popularity of walking
<td>
+
|
 
<p>Freedman, R. (2005). <i>Children of the Great Depression</i>. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.</p>
 
<p>Freedman, R. (2005). <i>Children of the Great Depression</i>. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.</p>
</td>
 
<td>
 
  
tjaskoviak</td>
+
|
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1930</td>
+
<td>Dick Tracy - The Concept </td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>hsahay</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1930</td>
+
<td>Analog compression developed</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>bjsharron</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1932</td>
+
<td>Polish cryptologists broke the Enigma machine code</td>
+
<td>http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2215003/Secrets-Enigma-code-cracked-Polish-Brits-MPs-claim.html</td>
+
<td>ajmokotoff</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1933</td>
+
<td>Two-way police radio communication</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td> </td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1933</td>
+
<td>FM Radio (frequency modulation) is invented by Edwin Armstrong</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td> </td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1933</td>
+
<td>Two-thirds of American households own at least one radio.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td> </td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1936</td>
+
<td>Alan Turing introduces the concept of a theoretical computer called the Turing Machine.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>eosowski</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1937</td>
+
<td>First FM Radio station is created, W1X0J in Massachusetts</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td> </td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1938</td>
+
<td>Orson Welles' "The War of the World" is broadcast causing panic across nation, many citizens believing the alien invasion is real.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td> </td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1939</td>
+
<td>Homer Dudley invented and showed the world the Voder which according to Bernard Gold's publication in The Lincoln Laboratory Journal, was a machine that, was controlled by a human operator who operated a console similar to a piano keyboard (pg. 163).</td>
+
<td>Gold, Bernard. "A History of Vocoder Research at Lincoln Laboratory." The Lincoln Laboratory Journal 3.2 (1990): 163-202. Lincoln Laboratory. Web. 4 Sept. 2015.</td>
+
<td>leantul</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1939</td>
+
<td>United States creates the first remote controlled air craft called the radio plane OQ2</td>
+
<td>http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone</td>
+
<td>addresser</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1939</td>
+
<td>Norman Bel Geddes depicts radio-controlled autonomous vehicles propelled by electromagnetic fields produced by circuitry in roads at the World's Fair. </td>
+
<td>Autonomous Cars: Past, Present and Future - A Review of the Developments in the Last Century, the Present Scenario and the Expected Future of Autonomous Vehicle Technology. SCITEPRESS, 2015. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.wpi.edu/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=7350466&amp;tag=1. Pg 2</td>
+
<td>aaadkins</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1940</td>
+
<td>"The History of Musical Instruments" by Curt Sachs offers the term 'electrophone', which is used to describe any kind of instruments that involved electricity.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td> </td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1940</td>
+
<td>Issac Asimov produces a series of short stories about robots for Super Science Stories magazine, these stories are eventually compiled into the vont-size: small;">Information Theory developed leading to new techniques in data compression</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>bjsharron</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1941</td>
+
<td>Les Paul produces the very first electric guitar, known as "The Log". Navajo windtalkers used in World War II</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>zhenhe</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1941</td>
+
<td>The Robinson code-breaking machine is built by the British to decode ENIGMA machine messages sent by the Germans</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>eosowski</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1941</td>
+
<td>The Atanasoff-Berry computer is completed, able to solve systems of linear equations</td>
+
<td>
+
  
</td>
+
tjaskoviak
<td>xjjackson</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1943</td>
+
<td>McCulloch and Pitts publish their paper "A Logical Calculus of The Ideas Immanent In Nervous Activity" providing the basis for artificial neural networks. </td>
+
<td>http://www.minicomplexity.org/pubs/1943-mcculloch-pitts-bmb.pdf </td>
+
<td>nmmuesch </td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1943</td>
+
<td>French computer expert, Rene Carmille, hacked the punch cards used by the Nazis to locate Jews.</td>
+
<td>http://www.technonerdz.org/2015/01/unconventional-guide-hacking/</td>
+
<td>ajmokotoff</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1946</td>
+
<td>The first sound engineering class and academic profession is created in Germany at the Music Institute at Detmold.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td> </td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1946</td>
+
<td>AT&T mobile phone service system established in St.Louis</td>
+
<td>Klemens, G. (2010). The cellphone: the history and technology of the gadget that changed the world. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.</td>
+
<td>yzhou8 </td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1947</td>
+
<td>The first hand-held mechanical calculator, the Curta miniature, is created. Very compact and cylindrical design.</td>
+
<td>http://history-computer.com/MechanicalCalculators/20thCentury/Curta.html Visited: 9/3/2015</td>
+
<td>dssilva</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1947</td>
+
<td>
+
The transistor is invented</td>
+
<td> http://www.wirelesshistoryfoundation.org/wireless-history-project/wireless-history-timeline
+
  
  </td>
+
|-
<td>zrrobbins</td>
+
|1930
</tr>
+
|Dick Tracy - The Concept
<tr>
+
|
<td>1948</td>
+
|hsahay
<td>Instant Prints - With the invention of the Polaroid camera, pictures could be printed directly from the camera and developed within minutes.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>tjstone</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1948</td>
+
<td>Frederic C. Williams and Tom Kilburn of the University of Manchester build the Small Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), one of the first computers with CRT output.</td>
+
<td>Peddie, J. (2013). <i>The history of visual magic in computers how beautiful images are made in CAD, 3D, VR and AR</i> (p. 297). London: Springer Science &amp; Business Media.</td>
+
<td>tjnickerson</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1948</td>
+
<td>RCA introduces a 45 rpm vinyl microgroove record for playing and recording music.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>rpdabrowski</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1948</td>
+
<td>Tape recorders - Tape recorder took the position of phonograph and optical recording in the 1940s. Around 1946, the first consumer magnetic recorder came to the market. However, its market is soon replaced by that of tape recorder, which is much cheaper and better. Millions of these recorders were sold.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>bangyan</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1948</td>
+
<td>Ralph Teetor invents cruise control</td>
+
<td>MILESTONES: Ralph Teetor, Professional Engineering Publishing Ltd., 2010. http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/docview/609129156?pq-origsite=summon&amp;accountid=29120.</td>
+
<td>aaadkins</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1946-06-17</td>
+
<td>First mobile telephone call</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>emilymiller</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1950</td>
+
<td>First use of the word "synthesizer" was used to describe electronic machines that were used to create sounds and music.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>rpdabrowski</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1950</td>
+
<td>Stereo Sound - Stereo is introduced to the public and soon became popular in the 1950s. Although the stereo creates false sound instrument positions, the consumers like its 3D effect. This is why it becomes popular.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>bangyan</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1950</td>
+
<td>Huffman coding invented</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>bjsharron</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1950 </td>
+
<td>Alan Turing introduces the Turing Test in his paper "Computing Machinery and Intelligence". </td>
+
<td>http://www.csee.umbc.edu/courses/471/papers/turing.pdf </td>
+
<td>nmmuesch </td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1951</td>
+
<td>First known computer-produced music. A Ferranti Mark 1 computer is programmed to beep out "Baa Baa Black Sheep".</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>jdfrench</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1952</td>
+
<td>Bell Labs developed a speech recognition machine with the ability to understand spoken number values after being accustomed to an individual's voice with only a 2% failure rate.</td>
+
<td>Gold, Bernard, Nelson Morgan, and Dan Ellis. "Chapter 4: Brief History of Automatic Speech Recognition." Speech and Audio Signal Processing: Processing and Perception of Speech and Music. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2011. N. pag. Print.</td>
+
<td>leantul</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1953</td>
+
<td>First operational transistorized computer by University of Manchester team lead by Tom Kilburn.</td>
+
<td>http://www.computerhistory.org/siliconengine/transistorized-computers-emerge/</td>
+
<td>allewis</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1953</td>
+
<td>General Motors and RCA complete a scale model of an automated highway system in which signals generated by the roads are used to control vehicles.</td>
+
<td>Driverless Dreams: Technological Narratives and the Shape of the Automated Car. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2015. Pg. 17</td>
+
<td>aaadkins</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1954</td>
+
<td>Solar cells are invented, bringing forth Solar Energy in the electricity market.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>djlaplante</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1954</td>
+
<td>First pocket radio is invented by Regency</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td> wofrick</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1954</td>
+
<td>Gordon Teal produces the first silicon transistor at a meeting of the Institute of Radio Engineers in Ohio.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>adurkee</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1954</td>
+
<td>
+
  
Morris Tanenbaum develops the first working silicon transistor at Bell Labs. </td>
+
|-
<td>http://spectrum.ieee.org/biomedical/devices/the-lost-history-of-the-transistor, </td>
+
|1930
<td>ajthompson</td>
+
|Analog compression developed
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|bjsharron
<td>1955</td>
+
<td>Manganese-alkaline batteries (the common alkaline battery) is invented, lasting far longer and more powerful than carbon-zinc batteries and made affordable by Lewis Urry</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>djlaplante</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1955</td>
+
<td>Robert Everett develops the light pen as part of MIT's Whirlwind project, the predecessor to the mouse.</td>
+
<td>Weisberg, D. (2008). Computer-Aided Design's Strong Roots at MIT. In <i>The Engineering Design Revolution: The People, Companies and Computer Systems That Changed Forever the Practice of Engineering.</i> Englewood, Colorado.</td>
+
<td>tjnickerson</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1956</td>
+
<td>The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence occurs at Dartmouth College, where they coin the term "artificial intelligence"</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>eosowski</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1957</td>
+
<td>Soviet Union launched Sputnik I, capable of transmitting wireless telemetry signals</td>
+
<td>http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/24759</td>
+
<td>zrrobbins</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1957</td>
+
<td>The creation of the light pen allowed users to directly interact with the computer screen.</td>
+
<td>Some Milestones in Computer Input Devices: An Informal Timeline, http://www.billbuxton.com/inputTimeline.html (accessed March 21, 2016).</td>
+
<td>djkiourtsis</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1957</td>
+
<td>Max Matthews writes the MUSIC program at Bell Labs, one of the first pieces of software for music production. Later versions add polyphony and multiple instrument sounds. Numerous derivatives are created over the next decade.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>jdfrench</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1957</td>
+
<td>While working at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey, Max Mathews produces the world's first computer-generated sounds.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>rpdabrowski</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1957</td>
+
<td>Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) is Founded</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>eapolekoff</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1957</td>
+
<td>First fully functional chess player program written</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>cpnota</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1957</td>
+
<td>The Standard &amp; Poor 500 Index is introduced. Computer technology allows the S &amp; P 500 to calculate and report market levels at one-minute intervals throughout the day.</td>
+
<td>http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/timeline/crash/2/</td>
+
<td>tleung</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1957</td>
+
<td>Stylator is invented by Tom L. Dimond. This new tablet input directly to a computer instead of a receiving device. It used handwriting recognition as well.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>wtao</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1957</td>
+
<td>A blind seven year old boy discovers a perfect whistle pitch that interacts with AT&amp;T's implementation of fully automatic switches, therefore opening up vulnerabilities.</td>
+
<td>http://www.radiolab.org/story/187724-long-distance/</td>
+
<td>ajmokotoff</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1958</td>
+
<td>First integrated circuit created by Jack Kilby, a single transistor</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>ndemarinis</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1958</td>
+
<td>First SAGE system is deployed, featuring a state of the art 19-inch CRT screen which could be interacted with using a light pen. The system is used to track aircraft.</td>
+
<td>http://www.i-programmer.info/history/machines/441-sage.html</td>
+
<td>nadiaz</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1959</td>
+
<td>AI Lab at MIT is founded (presently called CSAIL)</td>
+
<td>https://www.csail.mit.edu/about</td>
+
<td>mjgiancola</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1960</td>
+
<td>Ted Nelson began Project Xanadu with the ultimate goal of having a computer network but combining that with an easy user interface.</td>
+
<td>History of Search Engines: From 1945 to Google Today. <i>Search Engine History.com.</i> N.p., n.d. Web. 20 March 2016.</td>
+
<td>hanguyen</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td></td>
+
<td>The United States Navy launched six satellites in an experiment to track submarines using a very basic GPS.</td>
+
<td>NASA, Global Positioning System History, https://www.nasa.gov/directorates/heo/scan/communications/policy/GPS_History.html (March 23, 2017)</td>
+
<td>rmwiesenberg</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1961</td>
+
<td>An IBM 704 becomes the first computer to sing. The song is "Daisy Bell", which is famously sung by the computer HAL in the film 2001: A Space Odyssey (in reference to this event). Video: </td>
+
<td> 
+
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=41U78QP8nBk </td>
+
<td>jdfrench</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1961</td>
+
<td>First Wearable</td>
+
<td>Edward O. Thorp. 1998. The Invention of the First Wearable Computer. In Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC '98). IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, 4-.</td>
+
<td>akshoop</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1961</td>
+
<td>First symbolic integration program SAINT, developed by James Salgle in Lisp, which solved college freshman-level calculus problems. </td>
+
<td>http://www.softwarepreservation.org/projects/LISP/MIT/MIT-LCS-TR-047-corrected-ocr.pdf</td>
+
<td>allewis</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1962</td>
+
<td>The first communication satellite, Telstar, is launched into orbit</td>
+
<td> http://www.wirelesshistoryfoundation.org/wireless-history-project/wireless-history-timeline  </td>
+
<td>zrrobbins</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1962</td>
+
<td>J.C.R Licklider first proposes a global computer network</td>
+
<td>http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td>
+
<td>pmcraft</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1962</td>
+
<td>Leonard Kleinrock develops the idea of packet switching</td>
+
<td>http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td>
+
<td>pmcraft</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1962</td>
+
<td>The first industrial arm robot is introduced. Called the Unimate it is used for dangerous tasks on a General Motors assembly line</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>eosowski</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1962</td>
+
<td>Ivan Sutherkand introduces SketchPad, a line drawing device that utilizes light pens for illustration.</td>
+
<td>Sutherland, I. (1964). <i>Sketch pad a man-machine graphical communication system. Proceedings of the SHARE Design Automation Workshop on - DAC '64,</i> 6.329-6.346. Retrieved September 4, 2015, from ACM.</td>
+
<td>tjnickerson</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1962</td>
+
<td>Mainframe computer game Spacewar! is written at MIT.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>bli</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1962</td>
+
<td>IBM developed a speech recognition device which was capable of recognizing 16 words, which included numbers less than 10, 4 mathematical operation commands, and the words off and false.</td>
+
<td>"Pioneering Speech Recognition." IBM100 - Icons of Progress. IBM, n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2015.</td>
+
<td>leantul</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1962</td>
+
<td>Stanford Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL) is founded.</td>
+
<td>http://ai.stanford.edu/</td>
+
<td>mjgiancola</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1963</td>
+
<td>Phillips releases its compact cassette, a major breakthrough in tape cassettes. It is not the first "tape" based recording device, but it is the best, most compact, and quickly becomes the standard for all tapes/players.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>rpdabrowski</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1963</td>
+
<td>The RAND Tablet is introduced. It is claimed to be the first digital graphic device that is low cost.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>wtao</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1963</td>
+
<td>Ted Nelson coined the term hypertext, which allowed for associations between links to be made (similar to how the human brain works).</td>
+
<td>History of Search Engines: From 1945 to Google Today. <i>Search Engine History.com.</i> N.p., n.d. Web. 20 March 2016.</td>
+
<td>hanguyen</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1963</td>
+
<td>Sutherland introduces the Sketchpad system.  This would mainly be used for drawing.</td>
+
<td>A brief history of human-computer interaction technology. Interactions, 5(2), 44-54. </td>
+
<td><br />djkiourtsis <br /> </td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1964</td>
+
<td>Desktop electric calculators raise in popularity. Use thousands of transistors and cost thousands of dollars for companies to purchase.</td>
+
<td>http://www.vintagecalculators.com/html/history_of_electronic_calculat.htm Visited: 9/3/2015</td>
+
<td>dssilva</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1964</td>
+
<td>The IBM 360 becomes the first computer to be mass-produced</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>eosowski</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1964</td>
+
<td>The efficiency of a Packet-Switched network is demonstrated in a study done for the US Air Force.</td>
+
<td>Roberts, Lawrence G. The evolution of packet switching, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.wpi.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&amp;arnumber=1455410 (9/2/2015)</td>
+
<td>svadlamudi</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1964</td>
+
<td>The Talking Typewriter was developed as a tool to help individuals with disabilities and children based on a pre-determined lesson.</td>
+
<td>Sanderson, Barbara A., and Daniel W. Kratochvil. "The Edison Responsive Environment Learning System, or the Talking Typewriter." (1972): 1-34. American Institute for Research in the Behavioral Sciences. Web. 4 Sept. 2015.</td>
+
<td>leantul</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1965</td>
+
<td>The mouse is developed at Stanford to replace the existing light pens.</td>
+
<td>A brief history of human-computer interaction technology. Interactions, 5(2), 44-54.  <br /> </td>
+
<td>djkiourtsis</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1965</td>
+
<td> E.A. Johnson publishes an article on the design of a capacitive touchscreen. He later published a more complete article with photos two years later in 1967.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>djbenson</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1965</td>
+
<td>Lawrence Roberts connects a computer in MA to one in CA</td>
+
<td>http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td>
+
<td>pmcraft</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1965</td>
+
<td>MIT's CTSS, a campus wide network</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>emilymiller</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1965</td>
+
<td>Same computer Messagign system developed at MIT - named MAILBOX</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>w.gomez.r</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1965</td>
+
<td>Moore's Law (# of transistors in an IC double ~ 2 years)</td>
+
<td>Moore, Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits, http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~fussell/courses/cs352h/papers/moore.pdf</td>
+
<td>xjjackson</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1966</td>
+
<td>The first hand-held electric calculator is invented by Texas Instruments, Incorporated.</td>
+
<td>http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015</td>
+
<td>dssilva</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1966</td>
+
<td>The Stanform Research Institute creates Shakey, the first mobile robot to know and react to its own actions.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>eosowski</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1967</td>
+
<td>Richard Greenblatt writes MacHack, the first program to play chess that can defeat human opponents.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>eosowski</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1967</td>
+
<td>The Datapoint 3300 terminal is released, using a small CRT display capable of displaying 24-25 lines of text.</td>
+
<td>http://www.hpmuseum.net/display_item.php?hw=94http://www.swtpc.com/mholley/History/TVT_History.htm</td>
+
<td>nadiaz</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1968</td>
+
<td>George H. Heilmeier and his team invent the first Liquid Crystal Displays</td>
+
<td> http://ethw.org/Milestones:Liquid_Crystal_Display_1968</td>
+
<td>nadiaz</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1968</td>
+
<td>FCC, in the Carterphone case, ruled to allow external devices to be connected to AT&amp;T telephone line network. Paving the way for future network devices.</td>
+
<td>Johnson, Nicholas, Carterphone: My Story, http://ssrn.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/abstract=2173506 (9/3/2015)</td>
+
<td>svadlamudi</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1968</td>
+
<td>Computer Based Head Mounted Display</td>
+
<td>Ivan E. Sutherland. 1968. A head-mounted three dimensional display. In Proceedings of the December 9-11, 1968, fall joint computer conference, part I (AFIPS '68 (Fall, part I)). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 757-764</td>
+
<td>akshoop</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1968</td>
+
<td>Douglas Engelbart gives the mother of all demos, introducing both the computer mouse and multiwindow display.</td>
+
<td>
+
  
</td>
+
|-
<td>tjnickerson</td>
+
|1932
</tr>
+
|Polish cryptologists broke the Enigma machine code
<tr>
+
|http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2215003/Secrets-Enigma-code-cracked-Polish-Brits-MPs-claim.html; Churchhouse, R. (2002). Codes and ciphers Julius Caesar, the Enigma, and the internet. Cambridge ;: Cambridge University Press.  
<td>1969</td>
+
|ajmokotoff, etarthur
<td>ARPANET goes online connecting UCLA, Stanford, UCSB, and UU</td>
+
<td>http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td>
+
<td>pmcraft</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1969</td>
+
<td>The internet begins as ARPANET, which is commissioned by the DoD. The first nodes are created at UCLA, SRI, UCSB, and the University of Utah.</td>
+
<td>Hobbes, Hobbes' Abridged Internet Timeline, http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/mitra/honors/timeline.html(9/3/2015) </td>
+
<td>JRWatson</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1969</td>
+
<td>Victor Scheinman, a mechanical engineering student working in the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Lab creates the Stanford Arm, which is still a standard today</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>eosowski</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1969</td>
+
<td>DHL was founded.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>tpatikorn</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1969</td>
+
<td>UNIX is created.</td>
+
<td>http://www.computerworld.com/article/2531905/operating-systems/timeline--40-years-of-os-milestones.html</td>
+
<td>rdomanico</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1969</td>
+
<td>University of California in Los Angeles becomes the first connection pointf of ARPANET.</td>
+
<td>Shinder, Debra L., Computer Networking Essentials (Cisco Press, 2001), 3. http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/book/networking/1587130386/introduction-to-pc-networking/3?uicode=wpi (9/2/2015)</td>
+
<td>svadlamudi</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1964 - 1971</td>
+
<td>The Moog Synthesizer becomes the first to ever be mass produced.</td>
+
<td> </td>
+
<td>rpdabrowski</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>Late 1970s</td>
+
<td>DARPA begins to decrease funding to AI, especially speech recognition</td>
+
<td>http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/4475849/</td>
+
<td>mjgiancola</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1970</td>
+
<td>Alan Kay joins Engelbar to found the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC).</td>
+
<td>
+
  
</td>
+
|-
<td>tjnickerson</td>
+
|1933
</tr>
+
|Two-way police radio communication
<tr>
+
|
<td>1970</td>
+
|
<td>NiMH batteries emerge, proving to be powerful batteries with long lifespans and also better for the environment than cadmium-based batteries.</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>djlaplante</td>
+
|1933
</tr>
+
|FM Radio (frequency modulation) is invented by Edwin Armstrong
<tr>
+
|
<td>1970</td>
+
|
<td>Lucifer algorithm developed, later evolved into triple-DES (Data Encryption Standard)</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>zhenhe</td>
+
|1933
</tr>
+
|Two-thirds of American households own at least one radio.
<tr>
+
|
<td>1971</td>
+
|
<td>The National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation (N.A.S.D.A.Q.) opens its first day of trading, becoming the world's first electronic stock market.</td>
+
 
<td>http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/timeline/crash/2/</td>
+
|-
<td>tleung</td>
+
|1935
</tr>
+
|Hammond Organ Company invents the first commercially successful additive synthesizer.
<tr>
+
|http://www.hammond-organ.com/History/hammond_lore.htm Visited 08/30/2017
<td>1971</td>
+
|aperucic
<td>The Advanced Research Projects Agency, also known as ARPA, decided to financially back a five year project to further speech understanding and set the criteria that all machines must be able to understand 1000 chosen words with a maximum failure rate of 10%.</td>
+
 
<td>Gold, Bernard, Nelson Morgan, and Dan Ellis. "Chapter 4: Brief History of Automatic Speech Recognition." Speech and Audio Signal Processing: Processing and Perception of Speech and Music. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2011. N. pag. Print.</td>
+
|-
<td>leantul</td>
+
|1936
</tr>
+
|Alan Turing introduces the concept of a theoretical computer called the Turing Machine. Additionally, he introduces the principle of imitation.
<tr>
+
| Robert Epstein, Gary Roberts, Grace Beber, Parsing the Turing Test (Springer Science + Business Media B.V, 2009)
<td>1971</td>
+
|eosowski, rjsthilaire
<td>13 additional organizations are connected to ARPANET. This number begins to rapidly expand.</td>
+
 
<td>http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td>
+
|-
<td>pmcraft</td>
+
|1936
</tr>
+
|Ronald Fisher first describes Linear Discriminant Analysis
<tr>
+
|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_Fisher#cite_note-70
<td>1972</td>
+
|ljbuquicchio
<td>The PLATO IV terminal is released, with a novel orange plasma display capable of displaying a 512x512 bitmap. This terminal also had infrared touch screen support.</td>
+
 
<td>http://history-computer.com/ModernComputer/Basis/touch_screen.html</td>
+
|-
<td>nadiaz</td>
+
|1936
</tr>
+
|The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard is invented by Dr. August Dvorak. The layout intends to minimize finger motion and typing errors.
<tr>
+
|https://patents.google.com/patent/US2040248
<td>1972</td>
+
|jbbrown
<td>University of Illinois students file a patent for optical touchscreens and it is implemented in the Magnavox Plato IV Terminal. This is the first touchscreen used in a classroom. Thousands of them were built for this machine. </td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>djbenson</td>
+
|1937
</tr>
+
|First FM Radio station is created, W1X0J in Massachusetts
<tr>
+
|
<td>1972</td>
+
|
<td>First home video game</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>blammeson
+
|1938
caroberts</td>
+
|Orson Welles' "The War of the World" is broadcast causing panic across nation, many citizens believing the alien invasion is real.
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|
<td>1972</td>
+
 
<td>Pulsar all electric digital watch released </td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1939
<td>hsahay</td>
+
|Homer Dudley invented and showed the world the Voder which according to Bernard Gold's publication in The Lincoln Laboratory Journal, was a machine that, was controlled by a human operator who operated a console similar to a piano keyboard (pg. 163).
</tr>
+
|Gold, Bernard. "A History of Vocoder Research at Lincoln Laboratory." The Lincoln Laboratory Journal 3.2 (1990): 163-202. Lincoln Laboratory. Web. 4 Sept. 2015.
<tr>
+
|leantul
<td>1972</td>
+
 
<td>Telnet was published as an RFC</td>
+
|-
<td>http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td>
+
|1939
<td>pmcraft</td>
+
|United States creates the first remote controlled air craft called the radio plane OQ2
</tr>
+
|http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone
<tr>
+
|addresser
<td>1972</td>
+
 
<td>Several new companies enter the calculator market, rapidly developing electronic calculating technology and prices become affordable to the public.</td>
+
|-
<td>http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015</td>
+
|1939
<td>dssilva</td>
+
|Norman Bel Geddes depicts radio-controlled autonomous vehicles propelled by electromagnetic fields produced by circuitry in roads at the World's Fair.
</tr>
+
|Autonomous Cars: Past, Present and Future - A Review of the Developments in the Last Century, the Present Scenario and the Expected Future of Autonomous Vehicle Technology. SCITEPRESS, 2015. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.wpi.edu/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=7350466&amp;tag=1. Pg 2
<tr>
+
|aaadkins
<td>1972</td>
+
 
<td>Ray Tomilson develops system for addressing messages to users in diffrent computers - Emergence of "&lt;a href="mailto:to-user@destination"&gt;to-user@destination&lt;/a&gt;" syntax</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1939
<td>w.gomez.r</td>
+
|One of the first entertainment television programs was the broadcasting of a Major League baseball game.
</tr>
+
|First Televised Major League Baseball Game, https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-televised-major-league-baseball-game
<tr>
+
|mazyla
<td>1972</td>
+
 
<td>An early touch screen is developed in the University of Illinois.  It allowed users to interact with computers using their hands by using light rays.</td>
+
|-
<td>Some Milestones in Computer Input Devices: An Informal Timeline, http://www.billbuxton.com/inputTimeline.html (accessed March 21, 2016). <br /> </td>
+
|1940
<td>djkiourtsis</td>
+
|"The History of Musical Instruments" by Curt Sachs offers the term 'electrophone', which is used to describe any kind of instruments that involved electricity.
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|
<td>1970s - 1990s</td>
+
 
<td>Lithium and lithium ion batteries invented, with the extremely energy-dense material lithium and a maliable model, allowing them to be built specific for devices. Very popular for smaller (portable) electronics.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1940
<td>djlaplante</td>
+
|Issac Asimov produces a series of short stories about robots for Super Science Stories magazine, these stories are eventually compiled into the vont-size: small;">Information Theory developed leading to new techniques in data compression
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|bjsharron
<td>1971</td>
+
 
<td>The first microprocessor was created by Ted Hoff at Intel</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1940
<td>eosowski</td>
+
|Goliath a mobile landmine used by German forces was remotely controlled and could be remotely detonated.
</tr>
+
|http://www.allonrobots.com/military_robots_history.html Visited: 3/23/2018
<tr>
+
|hdunphy
<td>1971</td>
+
 
<td>Intel 4004 - first single chip microprocessor</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1941 AD
<td>dstapply</td>
+
|The first television news station is formed
</tr>
+
|M. Conway, "The Birth of CBS-TV News," Journalism History, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 128-137, 2006.
<tr>
+
|prlee
<td>1972</td>
+
 
<td>Intel releases the Intel 8008</td>
+
|-
<td>
+
|1941
 +
|Les Paul produces the very first electric guitar, known as "The Log". Navajo windtalkers used in World War II
 +
|
 +
|zhenhe
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1941
 +
|The Robinson code-breaking machine is built by the British to decode ENIGMA machine messages sent by the Germans
 +
|
 +
|eosowski
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1941
 +
|The Atanasoff-Berry computer is completed, able to solve systems of linear equations
 +
|
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|xjjackson
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1941
 +
|Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor. US fails to act on information intercepted by SIGINT
 +
|D. Owen, "A review of intelligence oversight failure: NSA programs that affected Americans," Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin, 2012.
 +
|mttaylor
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1941
 +
|ZUSE Z3 Terminal - Konrad Zuse creates the ZUSE Z3. Its display was made up of rows of lamps to show the output of program code stored on punched film.
 +
|Benji Edwards, A Brief History of Computer Displays, https://www.pcworld.com/article/209224/displays/historic-monitors-slideshow.html#slide1 Wikipedia, Z3 (computer), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Z3_(computer)
 +
|jhyuen
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1942
 +
|Issac Asimov introduces the Three Laws of Robotics
 +
|https://search.proquest.com/docview/1646568398?pq-origsite=summon
 +
|rjsthilaire
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1943
 +
|McCulloch and Pitts publish their paper "A Logical Calculus of The Ideas Immanent In Nervous Activity" providing the basis for artificial neural networks.
 +
|http://www.minicomplexity.org/pubs/1943-mcculloch-pitts-bmb.pdf
 +
|nmmuesch
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1943
 +
|French computer expert, Rene Carmille, hacked the punch cards used by the Nazis to locate Jews.
 +
|http://www.technonerdz.org/2015/01/unconventional-guide-hacking/
 +
|ajmokotoff
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1945
 +
|Project Shamrock. NSA begins recording telegraph data of US companies
 +
|D. Owen, "A review of intelligence oversight failure: NSA programs that affected Americans," Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin, 2012.
 +
|mttaylor
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| 1945
 +
|Allied nations gain access to German invention of magnetic tape
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1946
 +
|The first sound engineering class and academic profession is created in Germany at the Music Institute at Detmold.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1946
 +
|AT&T mobile phone service system established in St.Louis
 +
|Klemens, G. (2010). The cellphone: the history and technology of the gadget that changed the world. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
 +
|yzhou8
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1946
 +
|Microwave accidentally invented during a radar research project by Dr. Percy Spencer
 +
|http://www.partselect.ca/Resources/Appliances-Timeline-Of-Their-Arrival.aspx
 +
|mjmcdonald
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| 1946
 +
|Universal Recording founds by Bill Putnam
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1947
 +
|The first hand-held mechanical calculator, the Curta miniature, is created. Very compact and cylindrical design.
 +
|http://history-computer.com/MechanicalCalculators/20thCentury/Curta.html Visited: 9/3/2015
 +
|dssilva
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1947
 +
| The United States performed experiments and observed that when two gold point contacts were applied to a crystal of germanium.
 +
|https://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/200011/history.cfm
 +
|tmarwaha
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1947
 +
|
 +
The transistor is invented
 +
| http://www.wirelesshistoryfoundation.org/wireless-history-project/wireless-history-timeline
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|zrrobbins
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1947
 +
|Commercial TV taking shape in US
 +
|History of Television, https://www.nyu.edu/classes/stephens/History%20of%20Television%20page.htm
 +
|mazyla
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| 1947
 +
|Putnam records the first artist singing more than one line on a tape recorder
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| 1947
 +
|Putnam creats artificial reverb along with other effects
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1947
 +
|ENIAC Card Reader/Punch with IBM 405 Tabulator - The ENIAC used Hollerith punched cards for both input and output. Code would be punched into the input cards, the ENIAC would process the code, and then it would write out the output onto another card. These output cards could be read through the IBM 405 Tabulator.
 +
|Benji Edwards, A Brief History of Computer Displays, https://www.pcworld.com/article/209224/displays/historic-monitors-slideshow.html#slide1
 +
|jhyuen
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1947
 +
|The first transistor was invented at Bell Laboratories.
 +
|https://docs.google.com/document/d/1EMkcZ2UPuu95BAHkGAW1YPhDVI2GfyMJh1pEu-wmjy0/edit?usp=sharing
 +
|nmbargman
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1948
 +
|Instant Prints - With the invention of the Polaroid camera, pictures could be printed directly from the camera and developed within minutes.
 +
|
 +
|tjstone
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1948
 +
|The point-contact transistor was independently invented by German physicists.
 +
|http://www.computerhistory.org/siliconengine/the-european-transistor-invention/
 +
|tmarwaha
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1948
 +
|Frederic C. Williams and Tom Kilburn of the University of Manchester build the Small Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), one of the first computers with CRT output.
 +
|Peddie, J. (2013). <i>The history of visual magic in computers how beautiful images are made in CAD, 3D, VR and AR</i> (p. 297). London: Springer Science &amp; Business Media.
 +
|tjnickerson
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| 1948
 +
| Columbia records standardizes the 33 RPM vinyl record as a form of audio recording 
 +
| http://journals.sagepub.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/doi/pdf/10.1177/1469540513488403
 +
| rmabualhaija
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1948
 +
|RCA introduces a 45 rpm vinyl microgroove record for playing and recording music.
 +
|
 +
|rpdabrowski
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1948
 +
|Tape recorders - Tape recorder took the position of phonograph and optical recording in the 1940s. Around 1946, the first consumer magnetic recorder came to the market. However, its market is soon replaced by that of tape recorder, which is much cheaper and better. Millions of these recorders were sold.
 +
|
 +
|bangyan
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1948
 +
|Ralph Teetor invents cruise control
 +
|MILESTONES: Ralph Teetor, Professional Engineering Publishing Ltd., 2010. http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/docview/609129156?pq-origsite=summon&amp;accountid=29120.
 +
|aaadkins
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| 1948
 +
|First piece of musique concrete publicly broadcasted
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1946-06-17
 +
|First mobile telephone call
 +
|
 +
|emilymiller
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|March 1949
 +
|F. C. Williams and T. Kilburn outline a cathode ray tube display for computers.
 +
|F. C. Williams and T. Kilburn, "A Storage System for Use with Binary-Digital Computing Machines.” (Journal IEE, 1949), Pages 112-113.
 +
|pjjankowski
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1949
 +
|Warren Weaver proposes his theory of machine translation in his paper Memorandum on Translation
 +
|https://go.smartling.com/blog/a-brief-history-of-machine-translation/
 +
|mjgulbin
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1950
 +
|First use of the word "synthesizer" was used to describe electronic machines that were used to create sounds and music.
 +
|
 +
|rpdabrowski
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1950
 +
|Modern magnetic tape recording has become the standard medium for recording audio.
 +
|
 +
|obspring
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1950
 +
|Stereo Sound - Stereo is introduced to the public and soon became popular in the 1950s. Although the stereo creates false sound instrument positions, the consumers like its 3D effect. This is why it becomes popular.
 +
|
 +
|bangyan
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1950
 +
|Huffman coding invented
 +
|
 +
|bjsharron
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1950
 +
|Bell labs successfully produced a working bipolar NPN junction amplifying germanium transistor.
 +
|http://www.computerhistory.org/siliconengine/first-grown-junction-transistors-fabricated/
 +
|tmarwaha
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1950
 +
|Alan Turing introduces the Turing Test in his paper "Computing Machinery and Intelligence". Additionally, he depicts his theory of a universal machine that could be capable of non-mechanical actions such as imagination, judgement, and surprise
 +
|http://www.csee.umbc.edu/courses/471/papers/turing.pdf; Robert Epstein, Gary Roberts, Grace Beber, Parsing the Turing Test (Springer Science + Business Media B.V, 2009)
 +
|nmmuesch, rjsthilaire
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1950
 +
|The first truly solid, wall-to-wall automated home was created and lived in by a mechanical whiz known as Emil Mathias in Jackson, Michigan of the USA
 +
|https://www.the-ambient.com/features/visions-through-the-ages-history-of-home-automation-178
 +
|dberardi
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1950
 +
|SWAC Console - 2,300 vacuum tubes were used for storing memory and displaying that memory in a readable format.
 +
|Benji Edwards, A Brief History of Computer Displays, https://www.pcworld.com/article/209224/displays/historic-monitors-slideshow.html#slide1 Wikipedia, SWAC (computer), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SWAC_(computer)
 +
|jhyuen
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1950s
 +
|Morton Heilig invented the Sensorama, a fully immersive theatre-cabinet with a stereoscopic viewer, moving chair, scents, and wind.
 +
|https://www.vrs.org.uk/virtual-reality/history.html
 +
|bmwaid
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1950s
 +
|Metaphors/abstractions are used to describe computing tasks (e.g. “files,” programming “language,” “copy” and “paste”). Human computer interaction experts label this as engaging in a “dialogue” between humans and computers.
 +
|Imaz, Manuel, and David Benyon. Designing with Blends: Conceptual Foundations of Human-Computer Interaction and Software Engineering, MIT Press, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/wpi/detail.action?docID=3338668
 +
|ciduarte
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1951
 +
|First known computer-produced music. A Ferranti Mark 1 computer is programmed to beep out "Baa Baa Black Sheep".
 +
|
 +
|jdfrench
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1951
 +
|Ferranti Mark 1 Star - The Ferranti utilized Williams Tubes to display 20-bit words as a single line of dots.
 +
|Benji Edwards, A Brief History of Computer Displays, https://www.pcworld.com/article/209224/displays/historic-monitors-slideshow.html#slide1 Wikipedia, Ferranti Mark 1, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferranti_Mark_1
 +
|jhyuen
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1951
 +
|UNIVAC I Console - The UNIVAC I’s display consisted of rows of tiny light bulbs that would blink to communicate to the user.
 +
|Benji Edwards, A Brief History of Computer Displays, https://www.pcworld.com/article/209224/displays/historic-monitors-slideshow.html#slide1
 +
|jhyuen
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1952
 +
|AI OXO wins Tic-Tac-Toe
 +
|http://wpi.aci.info/view/14650deba575c0c0128/152861cf9a90012000a
 +
|awheeler2
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1952
 +
|Bell Labs developed a speech recognition machine with the ability to understand spoken number values after being accustomed to an individual's voice with only a 2% failure rate.
 +
|Gold, Bernard, Nelson Morgan, and Dan Ellis. "Chapter 4: Brief History of Automatic Speech Recognition." Speech and Audio Signal Processing: Processing and Perception of Speech and Music. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2011. N. pag. Print.
 +
|leantul
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1953
 +
|First operational transistorized computer by University of Manchester team lead by Tom Kilburn.
 +
|http://www.computerhistory.org/siliconengine/transistorized-computers-emerge/
 +
|allewis
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1953
 +
|Chamberlin is invented by Harry Chamberlin and is considered to be the first sampler instrument using strips of tape, one tape for each separate key.
 +
|https://www.google.com/patents/US2940351
 +
|obspring
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1953
 +
|General Motors and RCA complete a scale model of an automated highway system in which signals generated by the roads are used to control vehicles.
 +
|Driverless Dreams: Technological Narratives and the Shape of the Automated Car. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2015. Pg. 17
 +
|aaadkins
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1954
 +
|Solar cells are invented, bringing forth Solar Energy in the electricity market.
 +
|
 +
|djlaplante
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1954
 +
|First pocket radio is invented by Regency
 +
|
 +
| wofrick
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1954
 +
|The first working silicon transistor was developed at Bell Labs
 +
|Chelikowski, J. (2004) "Introduction: Silicon in all its Forms", p. 1 in Silicon: evolution and future of a technology.
 +
|tmarwaha
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1954
 +
|Gordon Teal produces the first silicon transistor at a meeting of the Institute of Radio Engineers in Ohio.
 +
|
 +
|adurkee
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1954
 +
|
 +
 
 +
Morris Tanenbaum develops the first working silicon transistor at Bell Labs.
 +
|http://spectrum.ieee.org/biomedical/devices/the-lost-history-of-the-transistor,
 +
|ajthompson
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1954
 +
|The Georgetown-IBM Experiment in New York City showcases a computer translating 49 Russian sentences into English, which is the first public demonstration of translation technology.
 +
|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_machine_translation
 +
|mjgulbin
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1955
 +
|Manganese-alkaline batteries (the common alkaline battery) is invented, lasting far longer and more powerful than carbon-zinc batteries and made affordable by Lewis Urry
 +
|
 +
|djlaplante
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1955
 +
|Robert Everett develops the light pen as part of MIT's Whirlwind project, the predecessor to the mouse.
 +
|Weisberg, D. (2008). Computer-Aided Design's Strong Roots at MIT. In <i>The Engineering Design Revolution: The People, Companies and Computer Systems That Changed Forever the Practice of Engineering.</i> Englewood, Colorado.
 +
|tjnickerson
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1956
 +
|The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence occurs at Dartmouth College, where they coin the term "artificial intelligence"
 +
|
 +
|eosowski
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1956
 +
|Allen Newell, J.C Shaw, and Herbert Simon demonstrated the first running AI program, Logic Theorist
 +
|https://history-computer.com/ModernComputer/Software/LogicTheorist.html
 +
|rjsthilaire
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1957
 +
|Soviet Union launched Sputnik I, capable of transmitting wireless telemetry signals
 +
|http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/24759
 +
|zrrobbins
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1957
 +
|The creation of the light pen allowed users to directly interact with the computer screen.
 +
|Some Milestones in Computer Input Devices: An Informal Timeline, http://www.billbuxton.com/inputTimeline.html (accessed March 21, 2016).
 +
|djkiourtsis
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1957
 +
|Max Matthews writes the MUSIC program at Bell Labs, one of the first pieces of software for music production. Later versions add polyphony and multiple instrument sounds. Numerous derivatives are created over the next decade.
 +
|
 +
|jdfrench
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1957
 +
|While working at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey, Max Mathews produces the world's first computer-generated sounds.
 +
|
 +
|rpdabrowski
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1957
 +
|Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) is Founded
 +
|
 +
|eapolekoff
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1957
 +
|First fully functional chess player program written
 +
|
 +
|cpnota
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1957
 +
|The Standard &amp; Poor 500 Index is introduced. Computer technology allows the S &amp; P 500 to calculate and report market levels at one-minute intervals throughout the day.
 +
|http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/timeline/crash/2/
 +
|tleung
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1957
 +
|Stylator is invented by Tom L. Dimond. This new tablet input directly to a computer instead of a receiving device. It used handwriting recognition as well.
 +
|
 +
|wtao
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1957
 +
|A blind seven year old boy discovers a perfect whistle pitch that interacts with AT&amp;T's implementation of fully automatic switches, therefore opening up vulnerabilities.
 +
|http://www.radiolab.org/story/187724-long-distance/
 +
|ajmokotoff
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1957
 +
|The famous 'Villa Arpel" set on "Mon Ocle" shows the first depcition of Home Automation in mass media
 +
|https://proquest.safaribooksonline.com/book/home-networking-and-security/9781848213210/chapter-1-introduction/sec_1_2_html#X2ludGVybmFsX0h0bWxWaWV3P3htbGlkPTk3ODE4NDgyMTMyMTAlMkZzZWNfMV8yX2h0bWwmcXVlcnk9
 +
|dberardi
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1957
 +
|The Monsanto House of the Future is built in Disney, the first physical conecpt of Home Automation
 +
|https://www.the-ambient.com/features/visions-through-the-ages-history-of-home-automation-178
 +
|dberardi
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1957
 +
|SAGE Console - The SAGE used radar and oscilloscope cathode ray tubes to display vector information as it pertained to radar military applications.
 +
|Benji Edwards, A Brief History of Computer Displays, https://www.pcworld.com/article/209224/displays/historic-monitors-slideshow.html#slide1
 +
|jhyuen
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| 1957
 +
|Universal Recording moved to Hollywood in the form of Universal Recording Corp.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1958
 +
|First integrated circuit created by Jack Kilby, a single transistor
 +
|
 +
|ndemarinis
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1958
 +
|First SAGE system is deployed, featuring a state of the art 19-inch CRT screen which could be interacted with using a light pen. The system is used to track aircraft.
 +
|http://www.i-programmer.info/history/machines/441-sage.html
 +
|nadiaz
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1958
 +
|CREED 75 Teleprinter - Instead of using punch cards like the ENIAC, the CREED used paper tape to code programs and produce output. Since the machine did not require cards, the machine automatically typed output on the paper in a human-readable form.
 +
|Benji Edwards, A Brief History of Computer Displays, https://www.pcworld.com/article/209224/displays/historic-monitors-slideshow.html#slide1
 +
|jhyuen
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1958
 +
|''Vertigo'' is the first movie including computer animation.
 +
|https://computeranimationhistory-cgi.jimdo.com/
 +
|ermahoney
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1959
 +
|AI Lab at MIT is founded (presently called CSAIL)
 +
|https://www.csail.mit.edu/about
 +
|mjgiancola
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1960
 +
|Ted Nelson began Project Xanadu with the ultimate goal of having a computer network but combining that with an easy user interface.
 +
|History of Search Engines: From 1945 to Google Today. <i>Search Engine History.com.</i> N.p., n.d. Web. 20 March 2016.
 +
|hanguyen
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| 1960
 +
|Joe Meek founds RGM Sound Ltd and creates the idea of a “home studio”
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| 1960
 +
|US government starts funding research that eventually creates the internet
 +
|Alex Thompson, A Brief History of Long Distance Communication, https://www.wilsonamplifiers.com/blog/a-brief-history-of-long-distance-communication/
 +
|nvanstralen
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1960
 +
|Morton Heilig developed the first head-mounted display called the Telesphere Mask that provided stereoscopic 3D vision and stereo sound.
 +
|https://www.vrs.org.uk/virtual-reality/history.html
 +
|bmwaid
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1960
 +
|PDP-1 CRT - The PDP-1 also included the Type 30 Precision CRT Display which could show basic images. With use of a connect pen, the user could pick points on the display.
 +
|Benji Edwards, A Brief History of Computer Displays, https://www.pcworld.com/article/209224/displays/historic-monitors-slideshow.html#slide1 Wikipedia, PDP-1, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PDP-1
 +
|jhyuen
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1960
 +
|J.C.R. Licklider writes a paper called “Man-Computer Symbiosis” to discuss the issues associated with personal computing devices.
 +
|Imaz, Manuel, and David Benyon. Designing with Blends: Conceptual Foundations of Human-Computer Interaction and Software Engineering, MIT Press, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/wpi/detail.action?docID=3338668
 +
|ciduarte
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|The United States Navy launched six satellites in an experiment to track submarines using a very basic GPS.
 +
|NASA, Global Positioning System History, https://www.nasa.gov/directorates/heo/scan/communications/policy/GPS_History.html (March 23, 2017)
 +
|rmwiesenberg
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1961
 +
|An IBM 704 becomes the first computer to sing. The song is "Daisy Bell", which is famously sung by the computer HAL in the film 2001: A Space Odyssey (in reference to this event). Video:
 +
 +
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=41U78QP8nBk
 +
|jdfrench
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1961
 +
|First Wearable
 +
|Edward O. Thorp. 1998. The Invention of the First Wearable Computer. In Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC '98). IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, 4-.
 +
|akshoop
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1961
 +
|First symbolic integration program SAINT, developed by James Salgle in Lisp, which solved college freshman-level calculus problems.
 +
|http://www.softwarepreservation.org/projects/LISP/MIT/MIT-LCS-TR-047-corrected-ocr.pdf
 +
|allewis
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1961
 +
|The first motion tracking head-mounted display, the Headsight was developed by Comeau and Bryan of Philco Co. using a magnetic tracking system.
 +
|https://www.vrs.org.uk/virtual-reality/history.html
 +
|bmwaid
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1962
 +
|The first communication satellite, Telstar, is launched into orbit
 +
| http://www.wirelesshistoryfoundation.org/wireless-history-project/wireless-history-timeline 
 +
|zrrobbins
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1962
 +
|J.C.R Licklider first proposes a global computer network
 +
|http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html
 +
|pmcraft
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1962
 +
|Leonard Kleinrock develops the idea of packet switching
 +
|http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html
 +
|pmcraft
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1962
 +
|The first industrial arm robot is introduced. Called the Unimate it is used for dangerous tasks on a General Motors assembly line
 +
|
 +
|eosowski
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1962
 +
|Ivan Sutherkand introduces SketchPad, a line drawing device that utilizes light pens for illustration.
 +
|Sutherland, I. (1964). <i>Sketch pad a man-machine graphical communication system. Proceedings of the SHARE Design Automation Workshop on - DAC '64,</i> 6.329-6.346. Retrieved September 4, 2015, from ACM.
 +
|tjnickerson
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1962
 +
|Mainframe computer game Spacewar! is written at MIT.
 +
|
 +
|bli
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1962
 +
|IBM developed a speech recognition device which was capable of recognizing 16 words, which included numbers less than 10, 4 mathematical operation commands, and the words off and false.
 +
|"Pioneering Speech Recognition." IBM100 - Icons of Progress. IBM, n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2015.
 +
|leantul
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1962
 +
|Stanford Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL) is founded.
 +
|http://ai.stanford.edu/
 +
|mjgiancola
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| 1962
 +
|Meek produces most famous recording “Telstar” by The Tornados
 +
|Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ryrEPzsx1gQ
 +
|
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1962
 +
|ASR-33 Teletype - While teletypes were used previously for communicating across telegraph lines, they were later hooked up to computers to continuously output a computer session. The low cost of the setup was attractive to many engineers.
 +
|Benji Edwards, A Brief History of Computer Displays, https://www.pcworld.com/article/209224/displays/historic-monitors-slideshow.html#slide1
 +
|jhyuen
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1963
 +
|Phillips releases its compact cassette, a major breakthrough in tape cassettes. It is not the first "tape" based recording device, but it is the best, most compact, and quickly becomes the standard for all tapes/players.
 +
|
 +
|rpdabrowski
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1963
 +
|Mellotron is produced by a new company called Streetly Electronics, a sampler that is mass producible and widely popular. The mellotron used tape to play back samples similarly to the Chamberlin.
 +
|https://web.archive.org/web/20121105234938/http://www.nordkeyboards.com/main.asp?tm=Sound%20Libraries&cllibr=Nord_Sample_Library&clslib=Mellotron
 +
|obspring
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1963
 +
|The RAND Tablet is introduced. It is claimed to be the first digital graphic device that is low cost.
 +
|
 +
|wtao
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1963
 +
|Ted Nelson coined the term hypertext, which allowed for associations between links to be made (similar to how the human brain works).
 +
|History of Search Engines: From 1945 to Google Today. <i>Search Engine History.com.</i> N.p., n.d. Web. 20 March 2016.
 +
|hanguyen
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1963
 +
|Sutherland introduces the Sketchpad system.  This would mainly be used for drawing.
 +
|A brief history of human-computer interaction technology. Interactions, 5(2), 44-54.
 +
|<br />djkiourtsis <br />  
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1963
 +
|First modular synthesizer developed by  R.A. Moog Co.
 +
|http://moogarchives.com/chrono.htm Visited 08/30/2017
 +
|aperucic
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| 1963
 +
|Dr. Who theme song is made by only using raw recordings of real-world sounds and sine and square wave oscillators
 +
|Retrieved from https://youtu.be/75V4ClJZME4
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1964
 +
|Desktop electric calculators raise in popularity. Use thousands of transistors and cost thousands of dollars for companies to purchase.
 +
|http://www.vintagecalculators.com/html/history_of_electronic_calculat.htm Visited: 9/3/2015
 +
|dssilva
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1964
 +
|The National Academy of Sciences form a committee called ALPAC to research machine translation
 +
|https://go.smartling.com/blog/a-brief-history-of-machine-translation/
 +
|mjgulbin
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1964
 +
|The IBM 360 becomes the first computer to be mass-produced
 +
|
 +
|eosowski
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1964
 +
|The efficiency of a Packet-Switched network is demonstrated in a study done for the US Air Force.
 +
|Roberts, Lawrence G. The evolution of packet switching, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.wpi.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&amp;arnumber=1455410 (9/2/2015)
 +
|svadlamudi
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1964
 +
|The Talking Typewriter was developed as a tool to help individuals with disabilities and children based on a pre-determined lesson.
 +
|Sanderson, Barbara A., and Daniel W. Kratochvil. "The Edison Responsive Environment Learning System, or the Talking Typewriter." (1972): 1-34. American Institute for Research in the Behavioral Sciences. Web. 4 Sept. 2015.
 +
|leantul
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1964
 +
|UNISCOPE 300 – Glass Teletype - Engineers realized CRT display technology could be fashioned into glass teletypes as it was more efficient than paper, and so the UNISCOPE was made. It was hooked up to computers to display text for user input and output.
 +
|Benji Edwards, A Brief History of Computer Displays, https://www.pcworld.com/article/209224/displays/historic-monitors-slideshow.html#slide1
 +
|jhyuen
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1965
 +
|The mouse is developed at Stanford to replace the existing light pens.
 +
|A brief history of human-computer interaction technology. Interactions, 5(2), 44-54.  <br />  
 +
|djkiourtsis
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1965
 +
| E.A. Johnson publishes an article on the design of a capacitive touchscreen. He later published a more complete article with photos two years later in 1967.
 +
|
 +
|djbenson
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1965
 +
|Lawrence Roberts connects a computer in MA to one in CA
 +
|http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html
 +
|pmcraft
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1965
 +
|MIT's CTSS, a campus wide network
 +
|
 +
|emilymiller
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1965
 +
|Same computer Messagign system developed at MIT - named MAILBOX
 +
|
 +
|w.gomez.r
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1965
 +
|Moore's Law (# of transistors in an IC double ~ 2 years)
 +
|Moore, Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits, http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~fussell/courses/cs352h/papers/moore.pdf
 +
|xjjackson
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1965
 +
|The Votomatic voting machine is developed, allowing for quicker, easier voting using punch cards
 +
|http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/supplies/supplies_5404PH12.html
 +
|stgoldman
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1965
 +
|Capacitive touch screen - A cathode-ray-tube monitor with a capacitive touch display was created by Eric Arthur Johnson, an engineer at the Royal Radar establishment to be used for air traffic control systems.
 +
|Interactive Displays: Natural Human‐Interface Technologies. (n.d.). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi:10.1002/9781118706237
 +
|jhyuen
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1966
 +
|The first hand-held electric calculator is invented by Texas Instruments, Incorporated.
 +
|http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015
 +
|dssilva
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1966
 +
|The Stanform Research Institute creates Shakey, the first mobile robot to know and react to its own actions.
 +
|
 +
|eosowski
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1966
 +
|The ECHO IV, which was never commercially sold, was invented. This device could perform common home actions such as controlling lights and appliances.
 +
|http://www.iotevolutionworld.com/m2m/articles/376816-history-smart-homes.htm
 +
|mjmcdonald
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1966
 +
|The National Traffic and Motor Safety Act was passed, requiring all newly manufactured cars to be equipped with safety standards including seat belts and airbags.
 +
|https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/president-johnson-signs-the-national-traffic-and-motor-vehicle-safety-act (Accessed March 22, 2018)
 +
|anpennie
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1967
 +
|Richard Greenblatt writes MacHack, the first program to play chess that can defeat human opponents.
 +
|
 +
|eosowski
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1967
 +
|The Datapoint 3300 terminal is released, using a small CRT display capable of displaying 24-25 lines of text.
 +
|http://www.hpmuseum.net/display_item.php?hw=94http://www.swtpc.com/mholley/History/TVT_History.htm
 +
|nadiaz
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1967
 +
|The ECHO IV was the first smart device which could compute shopping lists, control the home’s temperature and turn appliances on and off
 +
|http://www.iotevolutionworld.com/m2m/articles/376816-history-smart-homes.htm
 +
|dberardi
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1968
 +
|George H. Heilmeier and his team invent the first Liquid Crystal Displays
 +
| http://ethw.org/Milestones:Liquid_Crystal_Display_1968
 +
|nadiaz
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1968
 +
|FCC, in the Carterphone case, ruled to allow external devices to be connected to AT&amp;T telephone line network. Paving the way for future network devices.
 +
|Johnson, Nicholas, Carterphone: My Story, http://ssrn.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/abstract=2173506 (9/3/2015)
 +
|svadlamudi
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1968
 +
|SYSTRAN is founded by Dr. Peter Toma
 +
|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SYSTRAN
 +
|mjgulbin
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1968
 +
|Computer Based Head Mounted Display
 +
|Ivan E. Sutherland. 1968. A head-mounted three dimensional display. In Proceedings of the December 9-11, 1968, fall joint computer conference, part I (AFIPS '68 (Fall, part I)). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 757-764
 +
|akshoop
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1968
 +
|Douglas Engelbart gives "the mother of all demos", introducing the oN-Line System, with components such as a graphic user interface, computer mouse, multi-window display, email, live videoconferencing, and raster-scan video monitor.
 +
|Engelbart, Douglas. “A research center for augmenting human intellect”, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yJDv-zdhzMY (Accessed 3/17/19).
 +
|tjnickerson, pjjankowski, ciduarte
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1968
 +
|2001: A Space Odyssey is released. Widely regarded as one of the best science fiction movies of all time.
 +
|https://www.theguardian.com/film/2010/oct/21/space-odyssey-kubrick-science-fiction
 +
|kthooppalvasu
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1968
 +
|The Sword of Damocles was created by Ivan Sutherland and student Bob Sproull and was the first AR/VR device connected to a computer rather than a camera and produced primitive wireframe objects.
 +
|https://www.vrs.org.uk/virtual-reality/history.html
 +
|bmwaid
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1969
 +
|ARPANET goes online connecting UCLA, Stanford, UCSB, and UU
 +
|http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html
 +
|pmcraft
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1969
 +
|The internet begins as ARPANET, which is commissioned by the DoD. The first nodes are created at UCLA, SRI, UCSB, and the University of Utah.
 +
|Hobbes, Hobbes' Abridged Internet Timeline, http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/mitra/honors/timeline.html(9/3/2015)
 +
|JRWatson
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1969
 +
|Victor Scheinman, a mechanical engineering student working in the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Lab creates the Stanford Arm, which is still a standard today
 +
|
 +
|eosowski
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1969
 +
|DHL was founded.
 +
|
 +
|tpatikorn
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1969
 +
|UNIX is created.
 +
|http://www.computerworld.com/article/2531905/operating-systems/timeline--40-years-of-os-milestones.html
 +
|rdomanico
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1969
 +
|University of California in Los Angeles becomes the first connection pointf of ARPANET.
 +
|Shinder, Debra L., Computer Networking Essentials (Cisco Press, 2001), 3. http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/book/networking/1587130386/introduction-to-pc-networking/3?uicode=wpi (9/2/2015)
 +
|svadlamudi
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1969
 +
|The first microprocessor for commercial use in a terminal application.
 +
|https://docs.google.com/document/d/1EMkcZ2UPuu95BAHkGAW1YPhDVI2GfyMJh1pEu-wmjy0/edit?usp=sharing
 +
|nmbargman
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1964 - 1971
 +
|The Moog Synthesizer becomes the first to ever be mass produced.
 +
|
 +
|rpdabrowski
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|Late 1970s
 +
|DARPA begins to decrease funding to AI, especially speech recognition
 +
|http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/4475849/
 +
|mjgiancola
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1970
 +
|Alan Kay joins Engelbar to found the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC).
 +
|
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|tjnickerson
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1970
 +
|NiMH batteries emerge, proving to be powerful batteries with long lifespans and also better for the environment than cadmium-based batteries.
 +
|
 +
|djlaplante
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1970
 +
|The Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) creates the Alto, a personal computing device complete with a bitmapped display, keyboard, and mouse. Xerox also creates Ethernet to network the Alto.
 +
|Quinn, Michael J. Ethics for the information age. pg. 34-35. Pearson Education Inc., 2015. Print.
 +
|ciduarte
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1970
 +
|Lucifer algorithm developed, later evolved into triple-DES (Data Encryption Standard)
 +
|
 +
|zhenhe
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1970
 +
|Referred to as “the grandfather of automation”, the X10, a device that connected to power lines to control home appliances, was invented.
 +
|http://mashable.com/2015/01/08/smart-home-tech-ces/#94RaVgOCkkqc
 +
|mjmcdonald
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1970
 +
|First publication of Conway's Game of Life, a cellular automata "game" that despite its simplicity proved to be massively powerful and even Turing-complete.
 +
|https://web.archive.org/web/20090603015231/http://ddi.cs.uni-potsdam.de/HyFISCH/Produzieren/lis_projekt/proj_gamelife/ConwayScientificAmerican.htm
 +
|crmyers
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1971
 +
|The National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation (N.A.S.D.A.Q.) opens its first day of trading, becoming the world's first electronic stock market.
 +
|http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/timeline/crash/2/
 +
|tleung
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1971
 +
|The Advanced Research Projects Agency, also known as ARPA, decided to financially back a five year project to further speech understanding and set the criteria that all machines must be able to understand 1000 chosen words with a maximum failure rate of 10%.
 +
|Gold, Bernard, Nelson Morgan, and Dan Ellis. "Chapter 4: Brief History of Automatic Speech Recognition." Speech and Audio Signal Processing: Processing and Perception of Speech and Music. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2011. N. pag. Print.
 +
|leantul
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1971
 +
|13 additional organizations are connected to ARPANET. This number begins to rapidly expand.
 +
|http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html
 +
|pmcraft
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1971
 +
|The prototype of cloud computing first known as RJE (remote job entry)
 +
|https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc105
 +
|rhuang2
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1971
 +
|The Intel 4004 processor is created with 2,300 transistors.
 +
|https://docs.google.com/document/d/1EMkcZ2UPuu95BAHkGAW1YPhDVI2GfyMJh1pEu-wmjy0/edit?usp=sharing
 +
|nmbargman
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1972
 +
|The PLATO IV terminal is released, with a novel orange plasma display capable of displaying a 512x512 bitmap. This terminal also had infrared touch screen support.
 +
|http://history-computer.com/ModernComputer/Basis/touch_screen.html
 +
|nadiaz
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1972
 +
|University of Illinois students file a patent for optical touchscreens and it is implemented in the Magnavox Plato IV Terminal. This is the first touchscreen used in a classroom. Thousands of them were built for this machine.  
 +
|
 +
|djbenson
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1972
 +
|First home video game
 +
|
 +
|blammeson
 +
caroberts
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1972
 +
|Pulsar all electric digital watch released  
 +
|
 +
|hsahay
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1972
 +
|Telnet was published as an RFC
 +
|http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html
 +
|pmcraft
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1972
 +
|Several new companies enter the calculator market, rapidly developing electronic calculating technology and prices become affordable to the public.
 +
|http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015
 +
|dssilva
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1972
 +
|Ray Tomilson develops system for addressing messages to users in diffrent computers - Emergence of "&lt;a href="mailto:to-user@destination"&gt;to-user@destination&lt;/a&gt;" syntax
 +
|
 +
|w.gomez.r
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1972
 +
|An early touch screen is developed in the University of Illinois.  It allowed users to interact with computers using their hands by using light rays.
 +
|Some Milestones in Computer Input Devices: An Informal Timeline, http://www.billbuxton.com/inputTimeline.html (accessed March 21, 2016). <br />  
 +
|djkiourtsis
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1972
 +
|Plato IV Terminal - Plasma technology was used in the Plato IV as an alternative display technology. It allowed for displays to be lightweight and relatively thin, but the technology never really took off in PCs.
 +
|Benji Edwards, A Brief History of Computer Displays, https://www.pcworld.com/article/209224/displays/historic-monitors-slideshow.html#slide1 Wikipedia, PDP-1, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PDP-1
 +
|jhyuen
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1972
 +
|Email was invented.
 +
|Nicholas A. John (2014). File Sharing and the History of Computing: Or, Why File Sharing is Called “File Sharing”, Critical Studies in Media Communication
 +
|osanderson
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1972
 +
|Intel introduced the 8008 processor, an industry standard.
 +
|https://docs.google.com/document/d/1EMkcZ2UPuu95BAHkGAW1YPhDVI2GfyMJh1pEu-wmjy0/edit?usp=sharing
 +
|nmbargman
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1970s - 1990s
 +
|Lithium and lithium ion batteries invented, with the extremely energy-dense material lithium and a maliable model, allowing them to be built specific for devices. Very popular for smaller (portable) electronics.
 +
|
 +
|djlaplante
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1971
 +
|The first microprocessor was created by Ted Hoff at Intel
 +
|
 +
|eosowski
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1971
 +
|Intel 4004 - first single chip microprocessor
 +
|
 +
|dstapply
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1972 AD
 +
|The first digital watch is invented, utilizing electricity to display and calculate time.
 +
|https://www.pcmag.com/feature/296609/the-digital-watch-a-brief-history Visited: 3/23/2018
 +
|lgrande
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1972
 +
|Intel releases the Intel 8008
 +
|
 
Ceruzzi, Paul E. (May 2003).
 
Ceruzzi, Paul E. (May 2003).
 
<i>A History of Modern Computing</i>
 
<i>A History of Modern Computing</i>
(2nd ed.). MIT Press. pp. 220221.</td>
+
(2nd ed.). MIT Press. pp. 220221.
<td>ajthompson</td>
+
|ajthompson
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1973</td>
+
<td>Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf develop the TCP protocol. They release a paper on TCP in September. Bob Metcalfe begins development on Ethernet at Xerox PARC.</td>
+
<td>Computer History Museum, Internet History, http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/internet_history_70s.html (9/3/2015) </td>
+
<td>JRWatson</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1973</td>
+
<td>FTP was published as an RFC. All other RFCs become available through FTP</td>
+
<td>http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td>
+
<td>pmcraft</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1973</td>
+
<td>Israel develops the Mastiff UAV and soon after the IIA Scout, the first UAVs meant for data collection</td>
+
<td>http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone</td>
+
<td>addresser</td>
+
</tr>
+
<tr>
+
<td>1973</td>
+
<td>The Xerox Alto features a CRT with a 606x808 pixel display, which was used to show one of the first GUIs.</td>
+
<td>
+
  
http://www.digibarn.com/collections/systems/xerox-alto/</td>
+
|-
<td>nadiaz</td>
+
|1973
</tr>
+
|Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf develop the TCP protocol. They release a paper on TCP in September. Bob Metcalfe begins development on Ethernet at Xerox PARC.
<tr>
+
|Computer History Museum, Internet History, http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/internet_history_70s.html (9/3/2015)
<td>1973</td>
+
|JRWatson
<td>National Semiconductor releases the IMP-16, 16-bit microprocessor</td>
+
<td>
+
  
 +
|-
 +
|1973
 +
|FTP was published as an RFC. All other RFCs become available through FTP
 +
|http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html
 +
|pmcraft
  
http://bitsavers.org/pdf/national/imp/4200002B_IMP16_pgmg_Nov73.pdf,</td>
+
|-
<td>ajthompson</td>
+
|1973
</tr>
+
|Israel develops the Mastiff UAV and soon after the IIA Scout, the first UAVs meant for data collection
<tr>
+
|http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone
<td>1973</td>
+
|addresser
<td>Freddy Robot built by The Assembly Robotics Group at University of Edinburgh, which is capable of using visual perception to autonomously assemble wooden block models.</td>
+
 
<td>http://www.aiai.ed.ac.uk/project/freddy/</td>
+
 
<td>allewis</td>
+
|-
</tr>
+
|1973
<tr>
+
|The Xerox Alto features a CRT with a 606x808 pixel display, which was used to show one of the first GUIs.
<td>1973</td>
+
|
<td>NAVSTAR GPS Joint Program Office (JPO) established by Department of Defense to create GPS for military and civilians</td>
+
http://www.digibarn.com/collections/systems/xerox-alto/
<td> </td>
+
|nadiaz
<td>gmport</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1973</td>
+
|1973
<td>James Lighthill writes a report that downplays the success of AI, leading to a decrease in funding across Europe.</td>
+
|First commercial axial computer tomography development
<td>http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/4475849/</td>
+
|http://www.infinityugent.be/research-development/a-history-of-medical-imaging
<td>mjgiancola</td>
+
|lnguyen3
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
 
<td>1974</td>
+
 
<td>Work on Ethernet is completed at Xerox PARC. ARPANET begins to implement TCP.</td>
+
|-
<td>Computer History Museum, Internet History, http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/internet_history_70s.html (9/3/2015) </td>
+
|1973
<td>JRWatson</td>
+
|National Semiconductor releases the IMP-16, 16-bit microprocessor
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
 
<td>1974</td>
+
 
<td>The Silver Arm, which performed small-parts assembly using feedback from touch and pressure centers is created.</td>
+
http://bitsavers.org/pdf/national/imp/4200002B_IMP16_pgmg_Nov73.pdf,
<td> </td>
+
|ajthompson
<td> </td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1973
<td>1974</td>
+
|Freddy Robot built by The Assembly Robotics Group at University of Edinburgh, which is capable of using visual perception to autonomously assemble wooden block models.
<td>Transfer Control Protocl (TCP) specifications are published by two DARPA engineers to make packet transfer simpler.</td>
+
|http://www.aiai.ed.ac.uk/project/freddy/
<td>Mowery, David C., and Timothy Simcoe, Is the internet a US invention?-an economic and technological history of computer networking, http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/science/article/pii/S0048733302000690 (9/2/2015)</td>
+
|allewis
<td>svadlamudi</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1973
<td>1975</td>
+
|NAVSTAR GPS Joint Program Office (JPO) established by Department of Defense to create GPS for military and civilians
<td>Electric calculator manufacturers take over the calculator market through the use of mass production. Mechanical calculator sales decline rapidly.</td>
+
|
<td>http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015</td>
+
|gmport
<td>dssilva</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1973
<td>1975</td>
+
|James Lighthill writes a report that downplays the success of AI, leading to a decrease in funding across Europe.
<td>One of the first attempts at creating a Quantum Information Theory</td>
+
|http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/4475849/
<td>http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0034487776900057</td>
+
|mjgiancola
<td>hfloreshuerta</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1974
<td>1975</td>
+
|Work on Ethernet is completed at Xerox PARC. ARPANET begins to implement TCP.
<td>Arithmetic Coding developed</td>
+
|Computer History Museum, Internet History, http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/internet_history_70s.html (9/3/2015)  
<td> </td>
+
|JRWatson
<td>bjsharron</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1974
<td>1975</td>
+
|The Silver Arm, which performed small-parts assembly using feedback from touch and pressure centers is created.
<td>A patent is granted to George Samuel Hurst for developing the first resistive touchscreen. He is widely seen as the inventor of the touchscreen. </td>
+
|
<td> </td>
+
|
<td>djbenson</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1974
<td>1975</td>
+
|Transfer Control Protocl (TCP) specifications are published by two DARPA engineers to make packet transfer simpler.
<td>Calculator Wristwatch</td>
+
|Mowery, David C., and Timothy Simcoe, Is the internet a US invention?-an economic and technological history of computer networking, http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/science/article/pii/S0048733302000690 (9/2/2015)
<td>http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,879586,00.html</td>
+
|svadlamudi
<td>akshoop</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1974
<td>1975</td>
+
|Congress passed a law to make the national maximum speed limit 55 miles per hour.
<td>The BitPad that is more similar to modern graphics and drawing tablet is introduced by Summagraphics Corporation.</td>
+
|http://www.ncsl.org/research/transportation/transportation-review-speed-limits.aspx (Accessed March 23, 2018)
<td> </td>
+
|anpennie
<td>wtao</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1974
<td>1975</td>
+
|The first ad for a microprocessor based computer.
<td>Bill Gates argues that software is intellectual property.</td>
+
|https://docs.google.com/document/d/1EMkcZ2UPuu95BAHkGAW1YPhDVI2GfyMJh1pEu-wmjy0/edit?usp=sharing
<td> </td>
+
|nmbargman
<td>mtmccarthy</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|January 1975
<td>1976</td>
+
|The Altair 8800 was released and became the first commercially successful personal computer.
<td>CP/M is created, and becomes a model for DOS variations for approx. 2 decades.</td>
+
|H. Garland, "Design Innovations in Personal Computers" in Computer, (IEEE, 1977), Pages 24-27.
<td>http://www.computerworld.com/article/2531905/operating-systems/timeline--40-years-of-os-milestones.html</td>
+
|pjjankowski
<td>rdomanico</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1975
<td>1977</td>
+
|Electric calculator manufacturers take over the calculator market through the use of mass production. Mechanical calculator sales decline rapidly.
<td>The Apple II releases, offering buyers the option to purchase a Sup'r'mod alongside it to use their television as a monitor.</td>
+
|http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015
<td>http://apple2history.org/history/ah03/</td>
+
|dssilva
<td>nadiaz</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1975
<td>1977</td>
+
|One of the first attempts at creating a Quantum Information Theory
<td>Atari VCS released with MOS 6507 microprocessor.</td>
+
|http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0034487776900057
<td>computerhistory.org/timeline/graphics-games</td>
+
|hfloreshuerta
<td>sdnorton</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1975
<td>1977</td>
+
|Arithmetic Coding developed
<td>Deep space explorers Voyagers 1 and 2 launch from the Kennedy Space Center</td>
+
|
<td> </td>
+
|bjsharron
<td>esowowski</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1975
<td>1977</td>
+
|A patent is granted to George Samuel Hurst for developing the first resistive touchscreen. He is widely seen as the inventor of the touchscreen.  
<td>Sony Walkman: Cassette recorders - The famous walkman developed by Sony sold millions of copies. Become of a huge reduced price, teenagers are open to the world of cassette recorders. This makes cassette recorders very poplular quickly.</td>
+
|
<td> </td>
+
|djbenson
<td>bangyan</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1975
<td>1977</td>
+
|Calculator Wristwatch
<td>International Computer Chess Association founded</td>
+
|http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,879586,00.html
<td> </td>
+
|akshoop
<td>cpnota</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1975
<td>1977</td>
+
|The BitPad that is more similar to modern graphics and drawing tablet is introduced by Summagraphics Corporation.
<td>'Synclavier' is invented and designed to construct every sequence of numbers, every sound, all by itself. It digitally synthesizes sounds from nothing but numbers.</td>
+
|
<td> </td>
+
|wtao
<td>rpdabrowski</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1975
<td>1977</td>
+
|Bill Gates argues that software is intellectual property.
<td>BSD is created, and Radio Shack releases its line of affordable home computers.</td>
+
|
<td>http://www.computerworld.com/article/2531905/operating-systems/timeline--40-years-of-os-milestones.html</td>
+
|mtmccarthy
<td>rdomanico</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1975
<td>1977-8</td>
+
|Church Committee investigates NSA intrusion on US citizens. Leads to talk of restrictions on NSA surveillance
<td>LZ77/LZ78 Dictionary Compression Algorithms developed</td>
+
|D. Owen, "A review of intelligence oversight failure: NSA programs that affected Americans," Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin, 2012.
<td> </td>
+
|mttaylor
<td>bjsharron</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1975
<td>1978</td>
+
|Steven Sasson of Kodak develops the first working digital camera with a resolution of 0.01mp.
<td>The first solar-powered and credit card sized calculators are put on the market such as the Teal Photon.</td>
+
|https://petapixel.com/2010/08/05/the-worlds-first-digital-camera-by-kodak-and-steve-sasson/  
<td>http://www.vintagecalculators.com/html/teal_photon.html Visited: 9/3/2015</td>
+
|bmheavey
<td>dssilva</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1975
<td>1978</td>
+
|X10 protocol, using a power line as a communication channel, takes Home Automation industry to next level
<td>Marantz builds his "Pianocorder", which records the players notes on a cassette tape so that they may be played back on the same piano.</td>
+
|https://proquest.safaribooksonline.com/book/home-networking-and-security/9781848213210/chapter-1-introduction/sec_1_2_html#X2ludGVybmFsX0h0bWxWaWV3P3htbGlkPTk3ODE4NDgyMTMyMTAlMkZzZWNfMV8yX2h0bWwmcXVlcnk9
<td> </td>
+
|dberardi
<td>rpdabrowski</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1976
<td>1978</td>
+
|CP/M is created, and becomes a model for DOS variations for approx. 2 decades.
<td>Intel 8086, the first x86 processor using ~30k transistors</td>
+
|http://www.computerworld.com/article/2531905/operating-systems/timeline--40-years-of-os-milestones.html
<td> </td>
+
|rdomanico
<td>ndemarinis</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
|-
<tr>
+
|1976
<td>1978</td>
+
|Computer Music Melodian by Harry Mendell is first commercially available digital sampler.
<td>First GPS Block I satellites were built by Rockwell International and launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base</td>
+
|
<td> </td>
+
|obspring
<td>gmport</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1978</td>
+
|1976
<td>The Department of Defense launched a 24 satellite GPS system which was finally completed in 1993.</td>
+
|Apple I and SOL-20 – Composite Video Out - Steve Wozniak (Apple I) and Lee Felsenstein (SOL-20) wanted to hook up their respective computers to inexpensive TV monitors to build cheap terminals. As a result, they created computers with factory video outputs.
<td>NASA, Global Positioning System History, https://www.nasa.gov/directorates/heo/scan/communications/policy/GPS_History.html (March 23, 2017)</td>
+
|Benji Edwards, A Brief History of Computer Displays, https://www.pcworld.com/article/209224/displays/historic-monitors-slideshow.html#slide1
<td>rmwiesenberg</td>
+
|jhyuen
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1978</td>
+
|1977
<td>RSA algorithm published</td>
+
| NSA states that public cryptographic research could be a violation of multiple arms security acts.
<td> </td>
+
| Bauer, C. P. (2013). Government Control of Cryptologic Research. In Secret history: The story of cryptology (pp. 414-416). New York, NY: CRC Press.
<td>zhenhe</td>
+
| etarthur
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1978</td>
+
|1977
<td>Apple releases Apple-DOS. This was Apple's first OS. It used a command line interface.</td>
+
|The Apple II releases, offering buyers the option to purchase a Sup'r'mod alongside it to use their television as a monitor.
<td> </td>
+
|http://apple2history.org/history/ah03/
<td>aquartulli</td>
+
|nadiaz
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1978</td>
+
|1977
<td>Sony engineers create a prototype of the Walkman</td>
+
|Atari VCS released with MOS 6507 microprocessor.
<td>http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/03/from-walkman-to-ipod-what-music-tech-teaches-us-about-innovation/253158/</td>
+
|computerhistory.org/timeline/graphics-games
<td>wofrick</td>
+
|sdnorton
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1979</td>
+
|1977
<td>Apple begins work on Lisa, the first consumer-based computer with a graphical user interface based around the desktop metaphor. However, the device is slow, overpriced and poorly received.</td>
+
|Deep space explorers Voyagers 1 and 2 launch from the Kennedy Space Center
<td>Perkins, R., Keller, D., &amp; Ludolph, F. (1997). Inventing the Lisa user interface. <i>Interactions,</i> 40-53.</td>
+
|
<td>tjnickerson</td>
+
|esowowski
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1979</td>
+
|1977
<td> Motorola creates the Motorola MC68000, one of the earliest 32-bit microprocessors (though it only used 32-bit registers, all other components were 24-bit or 16-bit), which went on to be used in the Apple Lisa and Macintosh </td>
+
|Sony Walkman: Cassette recorders - The famous walkman developed by Sony sold millions of copies. Become of a huge reduced price, teenagers are open to the world of cassette recorders. This makes cassette recorders very poplular quickly.
<td>
+
|
 +
|bangyan
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1977
 +
|International Computer Chess Association founded
 +
|
 +
|cpnota
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1977
 +
|'Synclavier' is invented and designed to construct every sequence of numbers, every sound, all by itself. It digitally synthesizes sounds from nothing but numbers.
 +
|
 +
|rpdabrowski
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1977
 +
|BSD is created, and Radio Shack releases its line of affordable home computers.
 +
|http://www.computerworld.com/article/2531905/operating-systems/timeline--40-years-of-os-milestones.html
 +
|rdomanico
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1977
 +
|Apple II - Manufacturers made RF modulators for the Apple II so that it could display on any tv over the air.
 +
|Benji Edwards, A Brief History of Computer Displays, https://www.pcworld.com/article/209224/displays/historic-monitors-slideshow.html#slide1
 +
|jhyuen
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1977-8
 +
|LZ77/LZ78 Dictionary Compression Algorithms developed
 +
|
 +
|bjsharron
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1978
 +
|The first solar-powered and credit card sized calculators are put on the market such as the Teal Photon.
 +
|http://www.vintagecalculators.com/html/teal_photon.html Visited: 9/3/2015
 +
|dssilva
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1978
 +
|Marantz builds his "Pianocorder", which records the players notes on a cassette tape so that they may be played back on the same piano.
 +
|
 +
|rpdabrowski
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1978
 +
|Intel 8086, the first x86 processor using ~30k transistors
 +
|
 +
|ndemarinis
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1978
 +
|First GPS Block I satellites were built by Rockwell International and launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base
 +
|
 +
|gmport
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1978
 +
|The Department of Defense launched a 24 satellite GPS system which was finally completed in 1993.
 +
|NASA, Global Positioning System History, https://www.nasa.gov/directorates/heo/scan/communications/policy/GPS_History.html (March 23, 2017)
 +
|rmwiesenberg
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1978
 +
|RSA algorithm published the first significant public key cryptosystem
 +
| Orman, H. (2015). Encrypted Email The History and Technology of Message Privacy (1st ed. 2015.). Cham: Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-21344-6
 +
|zhenhe, etarthur
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1978
 +
|Apple releases Apple-DOS. This was Apple's first OS. It used a command line interface.
 +
|
 +
|aquartulli
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1978
 +
|Sony engineers create a prototype of the Walkman
 +
|http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/03/from-walkman-to-ipod-what-music-tech-teaches-us-about-innovation/253158/
 +
|wofrick
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1978
 +
|Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. Restricts NSA surveillance capabilities after Church Committee investigation.
 +
|D. Owen, "A review of intelligence oversight failure: NSA programs that affected Americans," Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin, 2012.
 +
|mttaylor
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1978
 +
|Electronic Bulletin Boards (BBS) were invented.
 +
|Nicholas A. John (2014). File Sharing and the History of Computing: Or, Why File Sharing is Called “File Sharing”, Critical Studies in Media Communication
 +
|osanderson
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1979
 +
|Apple sells 10 percent of its stock to Xerox in exchange for information regarding the Xerox PARC Alto.
 +
|Quinn, Michael J. Ethics for the information age. pg. 34-35. Pearson Education Inc., 2015. Print.
 +
|ciduarte
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1979
 +
|Apple begins work on Lisa, the first consumer-based computer with a graphical user interface based around the desktop metaphor. However, the device is slow, overpriced and poorly received.
 +
|Perkins, R., Keller, D., &amp; Ludolph, F. (1997). Inventing the Lisa user interface. <i>Interactions,</i> 40-53.
 +
|tjnickerson
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1979
 +
| Motorola creates the Motorola MC68000, one of the earliest 32-bit microprocessors (though it only used 32-bit registers, all other components were 24-bit or 16-bit), which went on to be used in the Apple Lisa and Macintosh  
 +
|
 
http://priorartdatabase.com/IPCOM/000059679#
 
http://priorartdatabase.com/IPCOM/000059679#
</td>
+
 
<td>ajthompson</td>
+
|ajthompson
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1979</td>
+
|1979
<td>The Stanford Cart, built by Hans Moravec, navigates the Stanford AI Lab through an assortment of chairs to become the first computer-controlled autonomous vehicle. </td>
+
|The Stanford Cart, built by Hans Moravec, navigates the Stanford AI Lab through an assortment of chairs to become the first computer-controlled autonomous vehicle.  
<td><br />http://web.stanford.edu/~learnest/cart.htm</td>
+
|<br />http://web.stanford.edu/~learnest/cart.htm
<td>allewis</td>
+
|allewis
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1979</td>
+
|1979
<td>Intel 8088 used in IBM-PC</td>
+
|Intel 8088 used in IBM-PC
<td> </td>
+
|
<td>dstapply</td>
+
|dstapply
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>322 BC</td>
+
|1979
<td>A time period referred to as the AI Winter began. Exact dates are up for debate, some sources claim it started as early as 1974 and lasted as long as 1990.</td>
+
|Yamaha releases the Casio VL-1, the first commercial digital synthesizer.
<td>Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (Prentice Hall, 2010), Pages 2, 16, 24, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/4475849/</td>
+
|Vail, Mark (2014) The Synthesizer: A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding, Programming, Playing, and Recording the Ultimate Electronic Music Instrument. Oxford University Press.
<td>mjgiancola</td>
+
|aperucic
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1980</td>
+
|1979
<td>The Sony Walkman is released</td>
+
|Fairlight CMI invented by Peter Fogel and Kim Ryrie is the first commercially available polyphonic digital sampler.
<td> </td>
+
|
<td>rpdabrowski</td>
+
|obspring
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1980</td>
+
|1979
<td>Microsoft releases MS-DOS. It creates an interface to access a computer's hardware making computers available to a larger audience.</td>
+
|Bjarne Stroustrup begins work on "C with Classes".
<td> </td>
+
|
<td>aquartulli</td>
+
|2. Stroustrup FAQ: http://www.stroustrup.com/bs_faq.html
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1980</td>
+
|1979
<td>Backpack Computer</td>
+
|The 8008 processor is officially released along with the Motorola 68000 which was a 16/32 bit processor.
<td>http://wearcam.org/ieeecomputer/r2025.htm ; Steve Mann. 1997. Smart clothing: wearable multimedia computing and personal imaging to restore the technological balance between people and their environments. In Proceedings of the fourth ACM international conference on Multimedia (MULTIMEDIA '96). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 163-174.</td>
+
|https://docs.google.com/document/d/1EMkcZ2UPuu95BAHkGAW1YPhDVI2GfyMJh1pEu-wmjy0/edit?usp=sharing
<td>akshoop</td>
+
|nmbargman
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1980</td>
+
|1980
<td>LZW Algorithm developed from LZ78 and became popular in many systems such as modems</td>
+
|The Sony Walkman is released
<td> </td>
+
|
<td>bjsharron</td>
+
|rpdabrowski
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1980</td>
+
|1980
<td>Defense Department officially adopts TCP/IP replacing NCP</td>
+
|Microsoft releases MS-DOS. It creates an interface to access a computer's hardware making computers available to a larger audience.
<td>http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td>
+
|
<td>pmcraft</td>
+
|aquartulli
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1980</td>
+
|1980
<td>FBI investigates a breach of security at the National CSS.</td>
+
|Backpack Computer
<td>http://www.cnn.com/2015/03/11/tech/computer-hacker-essay-414s/</td>
+
|http://wearcam.org/ieeecomputer/r2025.htm ; Steve Mann. 1997. Smart clothing: wearable multimedia computing and personal imaging to restore the technological balance between people and their environments. In Proceedings of the fourth ACM international conference on Multimedia (MULTIMEDIA '96). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 163-174.
<td>ajmokotoff</td>
+
|akshoop
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1981</td>
+
|1980
<td>Danny Hillis designs The Connection Machine, which utilizes parallel computing to bring new power to AI.</td>
+
|LZW Algorithm developed from LZ78 and became popular in many systems such as modems
<td>https://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/14719/18524280-MIT.pdf?sequence=2</td>
+
|
<td>allewis</td>
+
|bjsharron
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1981</td>
+
|1980
<td>Ian Murphy, known as Cptain Zap, was the first hacker to be tried and convicted as a felon. He broke into AT&amp;T's computers in 1981 and changed the billing rates.</td>
+
|Self Organizing Map - Kohonen
<td>http://hackstory.net/Captain_Zap</td>
+
|
<td>ajmokotoff</td>
+
|mmohapatra
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1981</td>
+
|1980
<td>Hacking group "Warelords" is founded. They successfully infilrtrated corporations and institutions such as teh White House, Southwestern Bell, and many corporate providers of voice mail systems.</td>
+
|Neocognitron - Fukushima
<td>http://hacker1malaysia.blogspot.com/</td>
+
|
<td>ajmokotoff</td>
+
|mmohapatra
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1981</td>
+
|1980
<td>MTV airs playing music videos, introducing a recorded version of a live "show" with music.</td>
+
|Defense Department officially adopts TCP/IP replacing NCP
<td> </td>
+
|http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html
<td>rpdabrowski</td>
+
|pmcraft
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1981</td>
+
|1980
<td>Takeo Kanade builds the direct drive arm, where motors are directly installed into the joints, making it faster and more accurate than previous robotic arms</td>
+
|FBI investigates a breach of security at the National CSS.
<td> </td>
+
|http://www.cnn.com/2015/03/11/tech/computer-hacker-essay-414s/
<td>eosowski</td>
+
|ajmokotoff
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
|-
<td>1981</td>
+
|1980
<td>The IBM PC is released, along with the introduction of PC-DOS and MS-DOS.</td>
+
|Yamaha releases the Yamaha GS-1, the first FM digital synthesizer.
<td>http://www.computerworld.com/article/2531905/operating-systems/timeline--40-years-of-os-milestones.html</td>
+
|Roads, Curtis (1996). The computer music tutorial. MIT Press.
<td>rdomanico</td>
+
|aperucic
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
 
<td>1982</td>
+
|-
<td>Albums start to be released on CD</td>
+
|1980
<td> </td>
+
|Sharp PC-1211 - The Sharp PC utilized liquid crystal displays also known as LCD because of its lightweight, energy-efficient, thin properties.
<td>rpdabrowski</td>
+
|Benji Edwards, A Brief History of Computer Displays, https://www.pcworld.com/article/209224/displays/historic-monitors-slideshow.html#slide1
</tr>
+
|jhyuen
<tr>
+
 
<td>1982</td>
+
 
<td>Adobe in founded, eventually revolutionizing multimedia on the web with Flash. Flash became one of the most popular embedded web technologies however, will need to adapt if it is to stay affluent in the market.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1981
<td>acrottier</td>
+
|Danny Hillis designs The Connection Machine, which utilizes parallel computing to bring new power to AI.
</tr>
+
|https://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/14719/18524280-MIT.pdf?sequence=2
<tr>
+
|allewis
<td>1982</td>
+
 
<td>Seiko TV Watch worn by James Bond </td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1981
<td>hsahay</td>
+
|Toshiba LMD-649 is created by Kenji Murata which was the first pulse-code modulation digital sampler.
</tr>
+
|http://tokyosky.sub.jp/tokyosky_webmasters_blog/2011/02/f-19823-lmd-649-1982.html
<tr>
+
|obspring
<td>1982</td>
+
 
<td>Music CD - Introduced in 1982 but did not become a big hit. It took a decade for CD to take the market of cassettes. Soon in 1990s, CD players become the most popular music recorders.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1981
<td>bangyan</td>
+
|Ian Murphy, known as Cptain Zap, was the first hacker to be tried and convicted as a felon. He broke into AT&amp;T's computers in 1981 and changed the billing rates.
</tr>
+
|http://hackstory.net/Captain_Zap
<tr>
+
|ajmokotoff
<td>1982</td>
+
 
<td>The Input Research Group at the University of Toronto develop the first multi touch interface.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1981
<td>djbenson</td>
+
|Hacking group "Warelords" is founded. They successfully infilrtrated corporations and institutions such as teh White House, Southwestern Bell, and many corporate providers of voice mail systems.
</tr>
+
|http://hacker1malaysia.blogspot.com/
<tr>
+
|ajmokotoff
<td>1982</td>
+
 
<td>The IBM Talking Terminal was invented and dictated whatever may be presently displayed on the computer screen which was found to be very useful for individuals unable to read the screen on their own.</td>
+
|-
<td>" IBM Hursley brings colour and speech to computing." IBM100 - Icons of Progress. IBM, n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2015.</td>
+
|1981
<td>leantul</td>
+
|The Xerox Star (Xerox 8010 Information System) was released as the first commercially produced computer with a GUI.
</tr>
+
|Smith, David, et al. “Designing the Star User Interface.” Byte Magazine, (UBM Technology Group 1982), Page 242.
<tr>
+
|pjjankowski
<td>1982</td>
+
 
<td>First deployment of wide scale wireless analog networks</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1981
<td>tasellielund</td>
+
|MTV airs playing music videos, introducing a recorded version of a live "show" with music.
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|rpdabrowski
<td>1983</td>
+
 
<td>MIDI was created. It goes on to become the standard for controlling synthesizers and digital keyboards, and later evolves to include many different capabilities concerning digital music.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1981
<td>jdfrench</td>
+
|Takeo Kanade builds the direct drive arm, where motors are directly installed into the joints, making it faster and more accurate than previous robotic arms
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|eosowski
<td>1983</td>
+
 
<td>Seiko Data-2000 watch/calculator/calendar tracker </td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1981
<td>hsahay</td>
+
|The IBM PC is released, along with the introduction of PC-DOS and MS-DOS. It quickly grew to dominate the personal computer market with its open architecture.
</tr>
+
|http://www.computerworld.com/article/2531905/operating-systems/timeline--40-years-of-os-milestones.html, Goth, Greg. “IBM PC Retrospective: There Was Enough Right to Make It Work.” in Computer, (IEEE, 2011), Pages 26–33.
<tr>
+
|rdomanico, pjjankowski
<td>1983</td>
+
 
<td>Microsoft announces Microsoft Windows to compete with Apple's GUI efforts.</td>
+
 
<td>A history of Windows. (n.d.). Retrieved September 4, 2015, from http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/history.</td>
+
|-
<td>tjnickerson</td>
+
|1981
</tr>
+
|IBM 5151 MDA and PC - IBM created the IBM PC with a monochrome video display standard (MDA) that was extremely sharp for the times.
<tr>
+
|Benji Edwards, A Brief History of Computer Displays, https://www.pcworld.com/article/209224/displays/historic-monitors-slideshow.html#slide1
<td>1983</td>
+
|jhyuen
<td>Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) is established, incorporating a standard for hardware (interfaces etc.) and coded commands that make transferring "digital information between various electronic instruments as well as between instruments and computers" very easy.</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>rpdabrowski</td>
+
|1982
</tr>
+
|C With Classes renamed C84.
<tr>
+
|
<td>1983</td>
+
|Stroustrup FAQ: http://www.stroustrup.com/bs_faq.html
<td>DARPA Miniature GPS Receiver (MGR) program began</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>gmport</td>
+
|1982
</tr>
+
|Albums start to be released on CD
<tr>
+
|
<td>1983</td>
+
|rpdabrowski
<td>1983- ARPANET adopts TCP/IP as standard protocols. ARPANET splits into MILNET, a network for defense R&amp;D and operational groups, and ARPANET, which is now a completely research based network. Desktop workstations with built in IP networking software are created and connected to ARPANET. DNS is developed by Jon Postel and Paul Mockapetris of USC and Craig Partridge of BBN.</td>
+
 
<td>Barry M. Leiner, et al., A Brief History of the Internet, http://www.cs.ucsb.edu/~almeroth/classes/F10.176A/papers/internet-history-09.pdf (9/3/2015) Hobbes, Hobbes' Abridged Internet Timeline, http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/mitra/honors/timeline.html(9/3/2015) Computer History Museum, Internet History, http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/internet_history_80s.html (9/3/2015)  </td>
+
|-
<td>JRWatson</td>
+
|1982
</tr>
+
|Adobe in founded, eventually revolutionizing multimedia on the web with Flash. Flash became one of the most popular embedded web technologies however, will need to adapt if it is to stay affluent in the market.
<tr>
+
|
<td>1983</td>
+
|acrottier
<td>Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is made a requirement for the NSFNET.</td>
+
 
<td>Leiner, Barry M. et al. A brief history of the internet, http://dl.acm.org.ezproxy.wpi.edu/ft_gateway.cfm?id=1629613&amp;ftid=608056&amp;coll=DL&amp;dl=ACM&amp;CFID=542592391&amp;CFTOKEN=52418481 (9/2/2015)</td>
+
|-
<td>svadlamudi</td>
+
|1982
</tr>
+
|Seiko TV Watch worn by James Bond  
<tr>
+
|
<td>1983</td>
+
|hsahay
<td>The "414s" break into 60 computer systems at institutions including Los Alamaos National Laboratory and Manhattan's Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. As a result the U.S. House of Representatives held hearings on computer security and passed several laws.</td>
+
 
<td>http://computersprogramm.blogspot.com/p/computer-hack.html</td>
+
|-
<td>ajmokotoff</td>
+
|1982
</tr>
+
|Music CD - Introduced in 1982 but did not become a big hit. It took a decade for CD to take the market of cassettes. Soon in 1990s, CD players become the most popular music recorders.
<tr>
+
|
<td>1983</td>
+
|bangyan
<td>Charles Walton is credited with developing RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology</td>
+
 
<td> http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/News/Press_Archive/200209/02-0905E/ </td>
+
|-
<td>zrrobins</td>
+
|1982
</tr>
+
|The Input Research Group at the University of Toronto develop the first multi touch interface.
<tr>
+
|
<td>1983</td>
+
|djbenson
<td>Charles Hull invents the first SLA 3D printer</td>
+
 
<td> https://3dprintingindustry.com/3d-printing-basics-free-beginners-guide/history/ </td>
+
|-
<td>ejbosia</td>
+
|1982
</tr>
+
|The IBM Talking Terminal was invented and dictated whatever may be presently displayed on the computer screen which was found to be very useful for individuals unable to read the screen on their own.
<tr>
+
|" IBM Hursley brings colour and speech to computing." IBM100 - Icons of Progress. IBM, n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2015.
<td>1984</td>
+
|leantul
<td> Bell Labs researcher Bob Boie releases the first multi-touch screen.</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>djbenson</td>
+
|1982
</tr>
+
|First deployment of wide scale wireless analog networks
<tr>
+
|
<td>1984</td>
+
|tasellielund
<td>protocol proposing quantum encryption published</td>
+
 
<td> </td>
+
|-
<td>zhenhe</td>
+
|1982
</tr>
+
|The first Ethernet adapter card for the IBM PC released, introducing fast, inexpensive connections that would enable cloud computing.
<tr>
+
|https://gcn.com/articles/2013/05/30/gcn30-timeline-cloud.aspx
<td>1984</td>
+
|rhuang2
<td>The X Window System is developed at MIT.</td>
+
 
<td>Scheifler, R., &amp; Gettys, J. (1986). The X Window System. <i>TOG ACM Trans. Graph. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 5(2),</i> 79-109.</td>
+
|-
<td>tjnickerson</td>
+
|1982
</tr>
+
|Hopfield Network - John Hopfield
<tr>
+
|
<td>1984</td>
+
|mmohapatra
<td>Apple releases the Macintosh, the first affordable GUI-based computer.</td>
+
 
<td>
+
|-
</td>
+
|1983
<td>tjnickerson</td>
+
|MIDI was created. It goes on to become the standard for controlling synthesizers and digital keyboards, and later evolves to include many different capabilities concerning digital music.
</tr>
+
|http://www.musicradar.com/news/tech/30-years-of-midi-a-brief-history-568009
<tr>
+
|jdfrench
<td>1984</td>
+
 
<td>Apple releases System 1. System 1 no longer had a command line. It used a GUI and introduced the finder and menu bar.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1983
<td>aquartulli</td>
+
|Seiko Data-2000 watch/calculator/calendar tracker  
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|hsahay
<td>1984</td>
+
 
<td>DNS begins to be implemented within the internet.</td>
+
|-
<td>Hobbes, Hobbes' Abridged Internet Timeline, http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/mitra/honors/timeline.html(9/3/2015) Computer History Museum, Internet History, http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/internet_history_80s.html (9/3/2015)  </td>
+
|1983
<td>JRWatson</td>
+
|Microsoft announces Microsoft Windows to compete with Apple's GUI efforts.
</tr>
+
|A history of Windows. (n.d.). Retrieved September 4, 2015, from http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/history.
<tr>
+
|tjnickerson
<td>1984</td>
+
 
<td>The Domain Name Server (DNS) is introduced to translate computer addresses (74.125.224.72) into human readable and recognazible addresses (www.google.com)</td>
+
|-
<td>Mowery, David C., and Timothy Simcoe, Is the internet a US invention?-an economic and technological history of computer networking, http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/science/article/pii/S0048733302000690 (9/2/2015)</td>
+
|1983
<td>svadlamudi</td>
+
|Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) is established, incorporating a standard for hardware (interfaces etc.) and coded commands that make transferring "digital information between various electronic instruments as well as between instruments and computers" very easy.
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|rpdabrowski
<td>1984</td>
+
 
<td>KoalaPad is produced by Koala Technologies for home computer. It has two extra programmable buttons at the top and also a pressure-sensitive stylus.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1983
<td>wtao</td>
+
|DARPA Miniature GPS Receiver (MGR) program began
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
|gmport
<td>1984</td>
+
 
<td>Wacom launched "WT Series", world's first tablet to use a cordless electronic pen.</td>
+
|-
<td> </td>
+
|1983
<td>wtao</td>
+
|1983- ARPANET adopts TCP/IP as standard protocols. ARPANET splits into MILNET, a network for defense R&amp;D and operational groups, and ARPANET, which is now a completely research based network. Desktop workstations with built in IP networking software are created and connected to ARPANET. DNS is developed by Jon Postel and Paul Mockapetris of USC and Craig Partridge of BBN.
</tr>
+
|Barry M. Leiner, et al., A Brief History of the Internet, http://www.cs.ucsb.edu/~almeroth/classes/F10.176A/papers/internet-history-09.pdf (9/3/2015) Hobbes, Hobbes' Abridged Internet Timeline, http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/mitra/honors/timeline.html(9/3/2015) Computer History Museum, Internet History, http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/internet_history_80s.html (9/3/2015)   
<tr>
+
|JRWatson
<td>1984</td>
+
 
<td>Sony releases the Discman D-50, the first portable CD player</td>
+
|-
<td>http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,2023689_2023681_2023585,00.html</td>
+
|1983
<td>wofrick</td>
+
|Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is made a requirement for the NSFNET.
</tr>
+
|Leiner, Barry M. et al. A brief history of the internet, http://dl.acm.org.ezproxy.wpi.edu/ft_gateway.cfm?id=1629613&amp;ftid=608056&amp;coll=DL&amp;dl=ACM&amp;CFID=542592391&amp;CFTOKEN=52418481 (9/2/2015)
<tr>
+
|svadlamudi
<td>1984</td>
+
 
<td>Alexey Pajitnov releases Tetris</td>
+
|-
<td>http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,2023689_2023681_2023585,00.html</td>
+
|1983
<td>caroberts</td>
+
|HP releases HP-150, first touch screen computer
</tr>
+
|Ryan, Bob. "The HP-150: Sensitive to a Personal Touch." Business computer systems 3.6 (1984): 166
<tr>
+
|ndrewniak
<td>1984</td>
+
 
<td> Motorola DynaTAC developed the first handheld cell phone and started to sell to the public</td>
+
|-
<td> Klemens, G. (2010). The cellphone: the history and technology of the gadget that changed the world. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.</td>
+
|1983
<td>yzhou8</td>
+
|The "414s" break into 60 computer systems at institutions including Los Alamaos National Laboratory and Manhattan's Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. As a result the U.S. House of Representatives held hearings on computer security and passed several laws.
</tr>
+
|http://computersprogramm.blogspot.com/p/computer-hack.html
<tr>
+
|ajmokotoff
<td>1984</td>
+
 
<td> Psion released the first PDA</td>
+
|-
<td> (n.d.). In 1984 Psion released the first PDA Organizer II In 1991 - AFE - 7105. Retrieved March 24, 2017, from https://www.coursehero.com/file/puttjo/In-1984-Psion-released-the-first-PDA-Organizer-II-In-1991-followed-by-Psions/</td>
+
|1983
<td>yzhou8</td>
+
|Charles Walton is credited with developing RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology
</tr>
+
| http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/News/Press_Archive/200209/02-0905E/  
<tr>
+
|zrrobins
<td>1985</td>
+
 
<td>
+
|-
 +
|1983
 +
|Charles Hull invents the first SLA 3D printer
 +
| https://3dprintingindustry.com/3d-printing-basics-free-beginners-guide/history/  
 +
|ejbosia
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1983
 +
|IBM 5153 CGA - The IBM 5153 had a CGA adapter to plug into a composite-video monitor or its associated display that had a special RGB connection unlike other displays at the time.
 +
|Benji Edwards, A Brief History of Computer Displays, https://www.pcworld.com/article/209224/displays/historic-monitors-slideshow.html#slide1
 +
|jhyuen
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1983
 +
|Commodore 1702 - The Commodore allowed for an early S-video connection to produce a high display. During this time, other similar computer monitors were being generated to be hooked up to computer systems.
 +
|Benji Edwards, A Brief History of Computer Displays, https://www.pcworld.com/article/209224/displays/historic-monitors-slideshow.html#slide1
 +
|jhyuen
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1983
 +
|Stuart Card, Thomas Moran, and Allen Newell publish “The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction.”
 +
|Imaz, Manuel, and David Benyon. Designing with Blends: Conceptual Foundations of Human-Computer Interaction and Software Engineering, MIT Press, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/wpi/detail.action?docID=3338668
 +
|ciduarte
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1983
 +
|''Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan'' has the first use of a particle system
 +
|https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=889049
 +
|ermahoney
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1984
 +
|C84 renamed as C++
 +
|
 +
|Stroustrup FAQ: http://www.stroustrup.com/bs_faq.html
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1984
 +
| Bell Labs researcher Bob Boie releases the first multi-touch screen.
 +
|
 +
|djbenson
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1984
 +
|protocol proposing quantum encryption published
 +
|
 +
|zhenhe
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1984
 +
|The X Window System is developed at MIT.
 +
|Scheifler, R., &amp; Gettys, J. (1986). The X Window System. <i>TOG ACM Trans. Graph. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 5(2),</i> 79-109.
 +
|tjnickerson
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1984
 +
|Apple releases the Macintosh, the first affordable GUI-based personal computer.
 +
| Quinn, Michael J. Ethics for the information age. pg. 34-35. Pearson Education Inc., 2015. Print.
 +
|tjnickerson, ciduarte
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1984
 +
|Apple releases System 1. System 1 no longer had a command line. It used a GUI and introduced the finder and menu bar.
 +
|
 +
|aquartulli
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1984
 +
|DNS begins to be implemented within the internet.
 +
|Hobbes, Hobbes' Abridged Internet Timeline, http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/mitra/honors/timeline.html(9/3/2015) Computer History Museum, Internet History, http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/internet_history_80s.html (9/3/2015)   
 +
|JRWatson
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1984
 +
|The Domain Name Server (DNS) is introduced to translate computer addresses (74.125.224.72) into human readable and recognazible addresses (www.google.com)
 +
|Mowery, David C., and Timothy Simcoe, Is the internet a US invention?-an economic and technological history of computer networking, http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/science/article/pii/S0048733302000690 (9/2/2015)
 +
|svadlamudi
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|1984
 +