Difference between revisions of "Timeline"

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Revision as of 12:18, 11 October 2016

Add your items to the list of events below.

  1. Preserve the order of events
  2. Include date for each entry
  3. Provide references
  4. Please cite your additions using your WPI user name
  5. If event already present, make any additions and cite modifications
Computing Technology Time Line
DateDescriptionReferencesContributers
200,000 BC Humans invented speech, the first form of communication epguleksen
Prehistoric Smoke signals were used to convey messages over long distances emilymiller
2000 BC The abacus is invented. A frame made out of wood holding rods with sliding beads on them, used to aid in arithmetic calculations. http://www.ee.ryerson.ca/~elf/abacus/history.html Visited: 9/3/2015 dssilva
1900 BC First documented cryptograph was found in Egypt zhenhe
1500 BC Mesopotamian tablet with encrypted recipe for pottery glaze zhenhe
1050 BC The first alphabet based on phonetic sounds invented. epguleksen
~1000 BC Shorthand first used bjsharron
950 BC King Solomon used pigeon post to get information around Achaemenid Persian Empire. tpatikorn
600 BC Hebrew ATBASH cipher used in writing the book of Jeremiah zhenhe
600 BC Mail was used among Chinese officials emilymilller
500 BC Pigeon post is used regularly emilymiller
490 BC Pheidippides carried a message from the Battle of Marathon to Athens. tpatikorn
486 BC Greek Skytale presumably used zhenhe
400 BC Camera Obscura-The phenomena that led to the invention of the camera and all photographic processes. A small hole was placed through a wall in a dark room and light would fill the room with an upside-down projection of the view from outside. tjstone
350 BC The Greek mathematician Archytas builds a mechanical bird dubbed ""The Pigeon" that is propelled by steam. eosowski
322 BC Aristotle writes: "If every tool, when ordered, or even of its own accord, could do the work that befits it…then there would be no need either of apprentices for the master workers or of slaves for the lords." eosowski
60 BC Caesar Cipher introduced by Julius Caesar zhenhe
60 - 50 BC Caesar Cipher introduced by Julius Caesar zhenhe
1495 Leonardo DaVinci designs a mechanical device that looks like an armored knight and is designed to make it move like there is a real person inside. eosowski
1500 Leonardo Da Vinci hypothesizes a way to track a roman soldiers steps and records the first idea of a pedometer tjaskoviak
1553 Password idea introduced by Giovan Belaso zhenhe
1585 Blaise de Vigenere wrote a book on ciphers. zhenhe
1600 John Napier invents “Napier’s Bones,” a mechanical device using rods or cylinders which slid together to do lattice multiplication and division on numbers. http://www.thecorememory.com/TimeMachine.pdf Visited: 9/3/2015 dssilva
1622 William Oughtred invents the slide rule. The device had two scales that could independently be slid, and the distance between the two could be read to view as multiplication or division. http://www.oughtred.org/history.shtml Visited: 9/3/2015 dssilva
1623 Wilhelm Schickard invents the “Calculating Clock,” which is considered to be the first mechanical calculator. The calculator utilized “Napier’s Bones” as well as other mechanics to help with celestial calculations. "The Time Machine." College English 31.5 (1970): 523. Web.Visited: 9/3/2015 dssilva
1642 The “Pascaline” or Pascal’s calculator was invented by mathematician Blaise Pascal. The hand cranked adding machine was very complex, using toothed wheels to do basic arithmetic with whole numbers. "The Time Machine." College English 31.5 (1970): 523. Web.Visited: 9/3/2015 dssilva
1673 The “Stepped Reckoner” is invented by German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz. The mechanical calculator utilized a long cylinder, called the “Leibniz wheel,” to do quick multiplication and addition. "The Time Machine." College English 31.5 (1970): 523. Web.Visited: 9/3/2015 dssilva
1683 Governor William Penn established Pennsylvania's first Post Office. tpatikorn
1685 Portable Reflex Camera Obscura - This camera was small enough to transport, being two feet long and nine inches high. Light shined through a lens and onto a mirror, generating an image that was right side up instead of upside-down. tjstone
1685 "Battery" used to describe a series of charged glass plates (capacitors). djlaplante
1711 British used ship to carry letters; each letter cost one penny. tpatikorn
1748 "Battery" used to describe a series of charged glass plates (capacitors). djlaplante
1755

Thomas Jefferson uses a pedometer, he would later introduce it to America. The strong association lead people to call them “Tomish Meters”

Adams, W. H. (2000).The Paris Years of Thomas Jefferson. Yale University Press.

tjaskoviak
1763 Bayes theorem of conditional probability Price, Problem in the Doctrine of Chances, http://www.stat.ucla.edu/history/essay.pdf xjjackson
1769 Wolfgang Ritter von Kempelen created one of the first known devices capable of mimicking human speech. The human operated device imitated human body parts required for speech to produce sounds that resembled vowels. Schroeder, Manfred Robert. "A Brief History of Speech." Computer Speech: Recognition, Compression, Synthesis. Berlin: Springer, 1999. N. pag. Print. leantul
1775 Benjamin Franklin appointed first Postmaster General (USPS). tpatikorn
1775 Thomas Jefferson invented the wheel cipher. zhenhe
1779 Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein created thin devices of various shapes that were able to create sounds resembling German vowels through vibration. Schroeder, Manfred Robert. "A Brief History of Speech." Computer Speech: Recognition, Compression, Synthesis. Berlin: Springer, 1999. N. pag. Print. leantul
1800 Alessandro Volta discovers the Voltaic Pile. Electricity generation now efficient djlaplante
1801 Joseph Jacquard builds an automated loom that is controlled by punch cards. eosowski
1805 Legendre published first paper on regression analysis, using a technique called the method of least squares Smith, Legendre, http://www.stat.ucla.edu/history/legendre.pdf xjjackson
1811 Steamboats started replacing rafts and boats in rivers in US. tpatikorn
1816 First Photographic Negatives -Through experimentation, Nicephore Niepce is able to expose an image onto paper coated with light-sensitive silver chloride. tjstone
1820 The “Arithmometer” becomes the first commercially successful mechanical calculator patented. http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015 dssilva
1822 Charles Babbage demonstrates a prototype of his "Difference Engine" to the Royal Astronomical Society. eosowski
1826 First Photograph - Nicephore Niepce took the first permanent, positive image using a camera obscura. The exposure lasted eight hours. tjstone
1829 Braille invented bjsharron
1833 Michael Faraday discovers a relationship between temperature and electrical conductivity in silver sulphide. adurkee
1835 Alexander-Edmond Becquerel recorded the first instance of the photovoltaic effect. adurkee
1835 Samuel Morse creates Morse code for communication over wires mburns23
1836 Daniell Cell invented to fix the hydrogen bubble problem of the Voltaic Pile djlaplante
1837 The Daguerreotype - Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre develops a way to drastically reduce exposure time and patents his discovery. tjstone
1838 US Congress designated all railroads as post routes. tpatikorn
1838 William Robert Grove invented the fuel cell, which uses hydrogen and oxygen djlaplante
1838 Morse electric telegraph emilymiller
1838-1843 Morse Code Developed bjsharron
1839 William Robert Grove invented the fuel cell, which uses hydrogen and oxygen djlaplante
1839 Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel recorded the first instance of hte photovoltaic effect with silver chloride-coated platinum electrodes in an aqueous nitric acid electrolyte. adurkee
1841 Positive/Negative Process - William Henry Fox Talbot perfects a similar process to the Daguerreotype, however the exposure is negative. Therefore, multiple positive copies could be made of the same exposure. This becomes the primary method for all modern film development. tjstone
1842 The Poggendorff cell is invented, providing higher voltage, consistent current, and fumeless, though delicate and more work to operate. djlaplante
1844 William Robert Grove invents the Grove Cell, which provides high current and doubles the voltage of the Daniell cell. However it is proven that when operated, the cell gives off toxic fumes. djlaplante
1844 Samuel Morse sends the first telegraph from Baltimore to Washington D.C. mburns23
1844 Samuel F. B. Morse transmits the first viable telegraph message. Securities brokers quickly adopt the technology to send market quotations. The telegraph helps expand the stock market by making trades accessible to brokers and investors outside of New York. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/timeline/crash/1/ tleung
1847 George Boole represents logic in mathematical form with Boolean Algebra eosowski
1849 Austria attacks Venice with unmanned balloons loaded with explosives. The first recorded example of unmanned ariel attacks. http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone addresser
1851 Amedee Mannheim standardizes the modern version of the slide rule with four scales most common for calculation problems. The ruler could calculate squares, square roots, and other basic arithmetic operations. http://www.oughtred.org/history.shtml Visited: 9/3/2015 dssilva
1854 Charles Babbage reinvented the wheel cipher. zhenhe
1859 Gaston Plante invents a lead-acid battery that can be recharged (first rechargeable battery). This model battery is still in use today as car batteries. djlaplante
1860 Willoughby Smith records the first instance of photoconductivity in metals. adurkee
1860 The Pony Express is established as a mail service in the Western United States. tpatikorn mburns23
1860s Gravity cell, an alternative version of the Daniell cell, is invented. It yielded a higher current and was easily constructed/refillable manually. djlaplante
1861 Samuel Morse Patents the design for the telegraph in America epguleksen
1861 First Color Photograph - James Clerk Maxwell created the first color photograph by exposing the same picture three separate times with different colored filters. The three images were then combined to form a single color image. tjstone
1861 The transcontinental telegraph wire is completed in US. mburns23
1864 James Clerk Maxwell proved the existence of electromagnetic waves. <a href="https://exchange.wpi.edu/owa/redir.aspx?SURL=DwCkdiDNHmqjZ3ph44QPEb52D0yQc4p3htA90Uq-rBIoIaxkFFLTCGgAdAB0AHAAOgAvAC8AdwB3AHcALgBpAHQAdwBvAHIAbABkAC4AYwBvAG0ALwBhAHIAdABpAGMAbABlAC8AMgA4ADAAMgA5ADUAMwAvAG0AbwBiAGkAbABlAC8AYQAtAGIAcgBpAGUAZgAtAGgAaQBzAHQAbwByAHkALQBvAGYALQB3AGkAcgBlAGwAZQBzAHMALQB0AGUAYwBoAG4AbwBsAG8AZwB5AC4AaAB0AG0AbAA.&URL=http%3a%2f%2fwww.itworld.com%2farticle%2f2802953%2fmobile%2fa-brief-history-of-wireless-technology.html" target="_blank" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;">http://www.itworld.com/article/2802953/mobile/a-brief-history-of-wireless-technology.html</a> zrrobbins
1865 Founding of WPI jmforkey
1866 Leclanche battery (aka the Zn/NH4Cl/C battery or the wet battery) invented, consistent and descent voltage, this became widely popular. djlaplante
1870 First Mechanical Typewriter put into production. fhunter
1873 Willoughby Smith discovers the photoconductivity of selenium, the first instance of recorded photoconductivity in metals. adurkee
1873 Sholes and Glidden Typerwriter with querty keyboard put into production. fhunter
1874 The first calculator using the pin-wheel principle, the Odhner calculator, is invented. Future calculators would use the same principle. http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015 dssilva
1874 Carl Ferdinand Braun created the first semiconductor rectifier, the diode. adurkee
1876 Alexander Bell creates first working phone epguleksen
1877 Thomas Edison reveals the phonograph to record and play back sounds. A cylinder rotates as a needle presses against it. The needle vibrates due to sound and leaves wave patterns in the cylinder, leaving a recording of sound. He showed his phonograph in the New York office of Scientific American Magazine. Frenchman Charles Cros also claimed to have invented phonograph because he described a similar concept earlier than Edison. Interestingly, Edison did not work hard to commercialize the phonograph. rpdabrowski
1877 The first dry cell battery is invented (improved by 1887), became very popular due to ease of use. djlaplante
1878 Ramon de Verea invents the first direct multiplication machine. This computation method was faster than previous methods. http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015 dssilva
1878 The first music is put on record: cornetist Jules Levy plays "Yankee Doodle." Bruck, J., Grundy, A., & Joel, I. (1999, October 17). An Audio Timeline. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from http://www.aes.org/aeshc/docs/audio.history.timeline.html cwjacobsohn
1880 The telephone network starts to become substantial with more than 50,000 telephone lines existing in the United States. Shinder, Debra L., Computer Networking Essentials (Cisco Press, 2001), 3. http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/book/networking/1587130386/introduction-to-pc-networking/3?uicode=wpi (9/2/2015) svadlamudi
1880 Chichester Bell and Charles Tainter improve on the phonograph by using a wax cylinder instead of tin foil and by using a floating stylus to “incise, rather than indent, the cylinder.” This improved device was called a graphophone. History of the Cylinder. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from https://www.loc.gov/collections/edison-company-motion-pictures-and-sound-recordings/articles-and-essays/history-of-edison-sound-recordings/history-of-the-cylinder-phonograph/ cwjacobsohn
1881 William Grylls Adams and Richard Evans Day discover that selenium produces electricity when in light. adurkee
1883 The world’s first printing calculator, the Scheutz Difference Engine, was invented. http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015 dssilva
1883 Charles Fritts creats the first photovoltaic cell by melting thin sheets of selenium on a metal substrate and placing a thin gold leaf on top of the selenium. adurkee
1885 Roll Film - Instead of glass, paper, or other expensive materials, George Eastman and William H. Walker develop the first roll of film and a camera to use it with. The Kodak camera was born. tjstone
1887 The “Comptometer”, the first key-driven adding and calculating machine, is invented by Dorr Felt. http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015 dssilva
1887

Emile Berliner invents and patents the Gramophone, a non-wax disc photo-engraved with a lateral-cut groove.â

Schoenherr, S. E. (2005, July 6). Recording Technology History. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from http://www.aes.org/aeshc/docs/recording.technology.history/notes.html cwjacobsohn
1887 Heinrich Hertz produced, sent and received wireless waves using reflectors to amplify the waves

http

//www
.wirelesscommunication.nl/reference/chaptr07/history.htm
zrrobbins
1888 Hertz demonstrates the existence of radio waves, prompting the search for suitable detectors. adurkee
1888 Emile Berliner displays his invention, the record player, as an alternative to the phonograph. rpdabrowski
1888 The Telautograph enabled written communication over long distances by the use of recorded electrical impulses that transmitted to the receiving telautograph. wtao
1891 William Burroughs begins to commercial manufacture his adding calculator through the Burroughs Adding Machine Company. Calculators became commonplace in American business offices. "Ethics for the Information Age, 6th Edition." Ethics for the Information Age, 6th Edition. dssilva
1892 Nikola Tesla experiments with energy frequency's, predicts that it could be used for telecommunications in the future
1890s Phone is used more after the initial first patent expires epguleksen
1894 Berliner’s company, the United States Gramophone Company, puts rubber gramophone discs on the market. These discs could be mass-produced, unlike cylinders at the time, and they were quickly adopted as a result. Emile Berliner and the Birth of the Recording Industry. (2001, June). Retrieved March 21, 2016, from https://memory.loc.gov/ammem/berlhtml/berlhome.html cwjacobsohn
1895 Guglielmo Marconi creates first wireless system capable of transmitting a signal long distances djlaplante
1895 Waldmar Jungner invents a nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery. First alkaline battery. Very expensive however Much higher energy than any previous battery. djlaplante
1896 Guglielmo Marconi creates the first wireless telegraph system http://www.wirelesshistoryfoundation.org/wireless-history-project/wireless-history-timeline zrrobbins
1897 Marconi demonstrated a radio transmission over 18 miles of the English Channel. The first wireless company, Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company was founded. http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/24759 zrrobbins
1897 Karl Ferdinand Braun creates a cathode ray oscilloscope, the first applied use of CRT technology http://history-computer.com/ModernComputer/Basis/cathode.html nadiaz
1898 Valdemar Poulsen develops and patents the “telegraphone”, the first magnetic recorder, which works by magnetizing thin steel wire. Morton, D. Inventing the Wire Recorder. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from http://www.recording-history.org/HTML/wire2.php cwjacobsohn
1898 Nikola Tesla builds and demonstrates a remote controlled robot boat at Madison Square Garden. eosowski
1899 The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell mburns23
1900 Thomas Lambert develops a method for mass-producing “indestructible” celluloid cylinder audio recordings. Schoenherr, S. E. (2005, July 6). Recording Technology History. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from http://www.aes.org/aeshc/docs/recording.technology.history/notes.html cwjacobsohn
1901 Carl Ferdinand Braun uses semiconductor rectifiers to receive radio signals. adurkee
1901 Marconi sends "first successful transatlantic radio communication". This helped him prove that the Earth's curvature does not affect radio signals. mburns23
1902 Danish engineer, Valdmar Poulsen, invents Poulsen-Arc, a radio transmitter
1902 Edison introduces his own method for mass-producing hard wax cylinders. Schoenherr, S. E. (2005, July 6). Recording Technology History. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from http://www.aes.org/aeshc/docs/recording.technology.history/notes.html cwjacobsohn
1903 The nickel-iron battery is invented, light weight and durable, though not as powerful as alkaline. djlaplante
1904 Welte in Freiburg, Germany succeeds in using perforated paper record and reproduce an original piano performance, essentially inventing the player piano. rpdabrowski
1905 John Fleming invents the Vacuum Tube http://www.pbs.org/transistor/science/events/vacuumt.html ajthompson
1906 William Randolph Hearst begins to use cylinder recordings of his speeches in his campaign for governor of New York. Schoenherr, S. E. (2005, July 6). Recording Technology History. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from http://www.aes.org/aeshc/docs/recording.technology.history/notes.html cwjacobsohn
1906 After extensive testing of materials while working on wireless signals, Greenleaf Whittier Pickard discovers silicon crystals as the most stable of rectifiers for receiving wireless signals out of about 30000 materials. adurkee
1906 First Audio Radio Broadcast is sent on December 24, 1906
1907 UPS was founded. tpatikorn
1907 Lee De Forest invents the triode tube, capable of not only acting as a diode, but also an amplifier for the signal passing through the tube.

https://www.google.com/patents/US879532, Retrieved: March 21, 2016

1911 Fred Wiseman flew with mails from Petaloma to Santa Rosa, California in 1911. tpatikorn
1913 FedEx was founded. tpatikorn
1915 Carl Benedicks found that germanium's resistance lay between that of silver and tin, and produced a diode using germanium, platinum, and copper. adurkee
1915 The automatic telephone exchange is created, removing the need for operators on every call. mburns23
1915 British use ariel imagery to capture 1500 sky view maps of the German trench fortifications. http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone addresser
1916 First 2 way radio test on naval warships tasellielund23
1917 Vernam cipher invented zhenhe
1918 The US creates ariel torpedoes that work as kamikaze drones. The war ended before these drones saw use. http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone addresser
1919

Walter H. Schottky invented the tetrode tube, an improvement over the triode, by adding an electrical screen between the control grid and the anode, which decouples the two to allow for higher voltage gains with a single tube.

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6218283
</td>
ajthompson</td>

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1920</td> The very first radio news program is broadcast</td> </td> </td>

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1920</td> John Hugo Mfg. Co. developed a toy for young children called “Radio Rex” that would move forward when the dog’s name, “Rex”, was called.</td> Gold, Bernard, Nelson Morgan, and Dan Ellis. "Chapter 4: Brief History of Automatic Speech Recognition." Speech and Audio Signal Processing: Processing and Perception of Speech and Music. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2011. N. pag. Print.</td> leantul</td>

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1921</td> One of the first radio stations to host music program airs under the name 'WJZ'</td> </td> </td>

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1921</td> Czech writer Karel Capek introduces the word "Robot" in his play "R.U.R"(Rossuum's Universal Robots)" "Robot in Czech comes from the word "robota" meaning "compulsory labor"</td> </td> eosowski</td>

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1922</td> Bell Telephone Laboratories develops and produces a "condenser microphone," which is designed to better reduce distortion, increase bass response, and capture more of the highs and lows of sound. Arthur Scerbius built the German Enigma machine.</td> </td> zhenhe</td>

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1922</td> BBC broadcasts first radio program</td> http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/24759</td> zrrobbins</td>

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1923</td> First electric key punch is designed by IBM. This was one of the earliest machines that could be used to create data and input for computers.</td> http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/history/year_1923.html (accessed March 21, 2016).</td> djkiourtsis</td>

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1924</td> Electric Recorders - The electronic amplifier by Western Electric inspired Columbia to develop electric recording technology. It turned out to be a huge success. The electronic recorders soon become more popular than traditional acoustic players.</td> </td> bangyan</td>

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1925</td> 35mm Film - Developed by Leica, this film size becomes the most popular size for amateur photographers.</td> </td> tjstone</td>

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1925</td> Houdina Radio Control demonstrates a radio controlled car called the “Linriccan Wonder” in New York City. The car is controlled by a passenger in a following car. </td> Driverless Dreams: Technological Narratives and the Shape of the Automated Car”. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2015. Pg. 11. http://www.estayton.com/Stayton_DriverlessDreams_May5_2015.pdf. </td> aaadkins</td>

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1926</td> Walter H. Schottky invented the tetrode tube, an improvement over the triode, by adding an electrical screen between the control grid and the anode, which decouples the two to allow for higher voltage gains with a single tube </td> <a href="https://exchange.wpi.edu/owa/redir.aspx?SURL=SRZmL3F4n4uDl8M9Q8F29NNL7FkF88fDNAsF9vE8nazu1VyTElLTCGgAdAB0AHAAOgAvAC8AaQBlAGUAZQB4AHAAbABvAHIAZQAuAGkAZQBlAGUALgBvAHIAZwAvAHgAcABsAC8AYQByAHQAaQBjAGwAZQBEAGUAdABhAGkAbABzAC4AagBzAHAAPwBhAHIAbgB1AG0AYgBlAHIAPQA2ADIAMQA4ADIAOAAzAA..&URL=http%3a%2f%2fieeexplore.ieee.org%2fxpl%2farticleDetails.jsp%3farnumber%3d6218283" target="_blank" style="font-family: Tahoma; font-size: 13.3333px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 20px; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: -24px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;">http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6218283</a>,</td> ajthompson</td>

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1927</td> Plus four wristlet route indicator released </td> </td> hsahay</td>

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1928</td> One-way police radio communication</td> </td> </td>

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1928</td> The N.Y.S.E. introduces new and improved high-speed tickers. The devices can print 500 characters per minute, almost twice as fast as the earlier models.</td> http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/timeline/crash/2/</td> tleung</td>

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1930</td> Magnetic Recorders - Magnetic recording is widely used today for video and audio tape. It is actually introduced way back in the 1900s. However, it is in the 1930s that it truly becomes a popular recording way for the public and companies such as BBC. At that time, the best magnetic technology is in the hands of German companies.</td> </td> bangyan</td>

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1930</td> The Hike-o-meter becomes popular in America with the growing popularity of walking</td>

Freedman, R. (2005). Children of the Great Depression. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.</p> </td>

tjaskoviak</td>

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1930</td> Dick Tracy - The Concept </td> </td> hsahay</td>

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1930</td> Analog compression developed</td> </td> bjsharron</td>

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1932</td> Polish cryptologists broke the Enigma machine code</td> http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2215003/Secrets-Enigma-code-cracked-Polish-Brits-MPs-claim.html</td> ajmokotoff</td>

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1933</td> Two-way police radio communication</td> </td> </td>

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1933</td> FM Radio (frequency modulation) is invented by Edwin Armstrong</td> </td> </td>

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1933</td> Two-thirds of American households own at least one radio.</td> </td> </td>

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1936</td> Alan Turing introduces the concept of a theoretical computer called the Turing Machine.</td> </td> eosowski</td>

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1937</td> First FM Radio station is created, W1X0J in Massachusetts</td> </td> </td>

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1938</td> Orson Welles' "The War of the World" is broadcast causing panic across nation, many citizens believing the alien invasion is real.</td> </td> </td>

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1939</td> Homer Dudley invented and showed the world the “Voder” which according to Bernard Gold’s publication in “The Lincoln Laboratory Journal”, was a machine that, “was controlled by a human operator who operated a console similar to a piano keyboard (pg. 163)”.</td> Gold, Bernard. "A History of Vocoder Research at Lincoln Laboratory." The Lincoln Laboratory Journal 3.2 (1990): 163-202. Lincoln Laboratory. Web. 4 Sept. 2015.</td> leantul</td>

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1939</td> United States creates the first remote controlled air craft called the radio plane OQ2</td> http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone</td> addresser</td>

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1939</td> Norman Bel Geddes depicts radio-controlled autonomous vehicles propelled by electromagnetic fields produced by circuitry in roads at the World’s Fair. </td> “Autonomous Cars: Past, Present and Future - A Review of the Developments in the Last Century, the Present Scenario and the Expected Future of Autonomous Vehicle Technology”. SCITEPRESS, 2015. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.wpi.edu/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=7350466&tag=1. Pg 2</td> aaadkins</td>

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1940</td> "The History of Musical Instruments" by Curt Sachs offers the term 'electrophone', which is used to describe any kind of instruments that involved electricity.</td> </td> </td>

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1940</td> Issac Asimov produces a series of short stories about robots for Super Science Stories magazine, these stories are eventually compiled into the vont-size: small;">Information Theory developed leading to new techniques in data compression</td> </td> bjsharron</td>

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1941</td> Les Paul produces the very first electric guitar, known as "The Log". Navajo windtalkers used in World War II</td> </td> zhenhe</td>

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1941</td> The Robinson code-breaking machine is built by the British to decode ENIGMA machine messages sent by the Germans</td> </td> eosowski</td>

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1941</td> The Atanasoff-Berry computer is completed, able to solve systems of linear equations</td> Quinn, Ethics for the Information Age (Pearson, 2015), 11</td> xjjackson</td>

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1943</td> McCulloch and Pitts publish their paper "A Logical Calculus of The Ideas Immanent In Nervous Activity" providing the basis for artificial neural networks. </td> http://www.minicomplexity.org/pubs/1943-mcculloch-pitts-bmb.pdf </td> nmmuesch </td>

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1943</td> French computer expert, Rene Carmille, hacked the punch cards used by the Nazis to locate Jews.</td> http://www.technonerdz.org/2015/01/unconventional-guide-hacking/</td> ajmokotoff</td>

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1946</td> The first sound engineering class and academic profession is created in Germany at the Music Institute at Detmold.</td> </td> </td>

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1947</td> The first hand-held mechanical calculator, the “Curta miniature,” is created. Very compact and cylindrical design.</td> http://history-computer.com/MechanicalCalculators/20thCentury/Curta.html Visited: 9/3/2015</td> dssilva</td>

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1947</td> The transistor is invented</td> <a href="https://exchange.wpi.edu/owa/redir.aspx?SURL=LOD-oBEQrKirfXS5PaIB-HW0xbmdxiUaAdYD-Hz1IxEoIaxkFFLTCGgAdAB0AHAAOgAvAC8AdwB3AHcALgB3AGkAcgBlAGwAZQBzAHMAaABpAHMAdABvAHIAeQBmAG8AdQBuAGQAYQB0AGkAbwBuAC4AbwByAGcALwB3AGkAcgBlAGwAZQBzAHMALQBoAGkAcwB0AG8AcgB5AC0AcAByAG8AagBlAGMAdAAvAHcAaQByAGUAbABlAHMAcwAtAGgAaQBzAHQAbwByAHkALQB0AGkAbQBlAGwAaQBuAGUA&URL=http%3a%2f%2fwww.wirelesshistoryfoundation.org%2fwireless-history-project%2fwireless-history-timeline" target="_blank" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;">http://www.wirelesshistoryfoundation.org/wireless-history-project/wireless-history-timeline</a> </td> zrrobbins</td>

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1948</td> Instant Prints - With the invention of the Polaroid camera, pictures could be printed directly from the camera and developed within minutes.</td> </td> tjstone</td>

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1948</td> Frederic C. Williams and Tom Kilburn of the University of Manchester build the Small Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), one of the first computers with CRT output.</td> Peddie, J. (2013). The history of visual magic in computers how beautiful images are made in CAD, 3D, VR and AR (p. 297). London: Springer Science & Business Media.</td> tjnickerson</td>

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1948</td> RCA introduces a 45 rpm vinyl microgroove record for playing and recording music.</td> </td> rpdabrowski</td>

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1948</td> Tape recorders - Tape recorder took the position of phonograph and optical recording in the 1940s. Around 1946, the first consumer magnetic recorder came to the market. However, its market is soon replaced by that of tape recorder, which is much cheaper and better. Millions of these recorders were sold.</td> </td> bangyan</td>

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1948</td> Ralph Teetor invents cruise control</td> “MILESTONES: Ralph Teetor”, Professional Engineering Publishing Ltd., 2010. http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/docview/609129156?pq-origsite=summon&accountid=29120.</td> aaadkins</td>

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1946-06-17</td> First mobile telephone call</td> </td> emilymiller</td>

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1950</td> First use of the word "synthesizer" was used to describe electronic machines that were used to create sounds and music.</td> </td> rpdabrowski</td>

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1950</td> Stereo Sound - Stereo is introduced to the public and soon became popular in the 1950s. Although the stereo creates false sound instrument positions, the consumers like its 3D effect. This is why it becomes popular.</td> </td> bangyan</td>

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1950</td> Huffman coding invented</td> </td> bjsharron</td>

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1950 </td> Alan Turing introduces the Turing Test in his paper "Computing Machinery and Intelligence". </td> http://www.csee.umbc.edu/courses/471/papers/turing.pdf </td> nmmuesch </td>

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1951</td> First known computer-produced music. A Ferranti Mark 1 computer is programmed to beep out "Baa Baa Black Sheep".</td> </td> jdfrench</td>

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1952</td> Bell Labs developed a speech recognition machine with the ability to understand spoken number values after being accustomed to an individual’s voice with only a 2% failure rate.</td> Gold, Bernard, Nelson Morgan, and Dan Ellis. "Chapter 4: Brief History of Automatic Speech Recognition." Speech and Audio Signal Processing: Processing and Perception of Speech and Music. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2011. N. pag. Print.</td> leantul</td>

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1953</td> First operational transistorized computer by University of Manchester team lead by Tom Kilburn.</td> http://www.computerhistory.org/siliconengine/transistorized-computers-emerge/</td> allewis</td>

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1953</td> General Motors and RCA complete a scale model of an automated highway system in which signals generated by the roads are used to control vehicles.</td> “Driverless Dreams: Technological Narratives and the Shape of the Automated Car”. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2015. Pg. 17</td> aaadkins</td>

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1954</td> Solar cells are invented, bringing forth Solar Energy in the electricity market.</td> </td> djlaplante</td>

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1954</td> First pocket radio is invented by Regency</td> </td> wofrick</td>

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1954</td> Gordon Teal produces the first silicon transistor at a meeting of the Institute of Radio Engineers in Ohio.</td> </td> adurkee</td>

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1954</td> Morris Tanenbaum develops the first working silicon transistor at Bell Labs. </td> http://spectrum.ieee.org/biomedical/devices/the-lost-history-of-the-transistor, </td> ajthompson</td>

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1955</td> Manganese-alkaline batteries (the common alkaline battery) is invented, lasting far longer and more powerful than carbon-zinc batteries and made affordable by Lewis Urry</td> </td> djlaplante</td>

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1955</td> Robert Everett develops the light pen as part of MIT's Whirlwind project, the predecessor to the mouse.</td> Weisberg, D. (2008). Computer-Aided Design’s Strong Roots at MIT. In The Engineering Design Revolution: The People, Companies and Computer Systems That Changed Forever the Practice of Engineering. Englewood, Colorado.</td> tjnickerson</td>

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1956</td> The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence occurs at Dartmouth College, where they coin the term "artificial intelligence"</td> </td> eosowski</td>

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1957</td> Soviet Union launched Sputnik I, capable of transmitting wireless telemetry signals</td> http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/24759</td> zrrobbins</td>

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1957</td> The creation of the light pen allowed users to directly interact with the computer screen.</td> Some Milestones in Computer Input Devices: An Informal Timeline, http://www.billbuxton.com/inputTimeline.html (accessed March 21, 2016).</td> djkiourtsis</td>

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1957</td> Max Matthews writes the MUSIC program at Bell Labs, one of the first pieces of software for music production. Later versions add polyphony and multiple instrument sounds. Numerous derivatives are created over the next decade.</td> </td> jdfrench</td>

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1957</td> While working at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey, Max Mathews produces the world's first computer-generated sounds.</td> </td> rpdabrowski</td>

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1957</td> Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) is Founded</td> </td> eapolekoff</td>

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1957</td> First fully functional chess player program written</td> </td> cpnota</td>

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1957</td> The Standard & Poor 500 Index is introduced. Computer technology allows the S & P 500 to calculate and report market levels at one-minute intervals throughout the day.</td> http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/timeline/crash/2/</td> tleung</td>

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1957</td> Stylator is invented by Tom L. Dimond. This new tablet input directly to a computer instead of a receiving device. It used handwriting recognition as well.</td> </td> wtao</td>

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1957</td> A blind seven year old boy discovers a perfect whistle pitch that interacts with AT&T's implementation of fully automatic switches, therefore opening up vulnerabilities.</td> http://www.radiolab.org/story/187724-long-distance/</td> ajmokotoff</td>

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1958</td> First integrated circuit created by Jack Kilby, a single transistor</td> </td> ndemarinis</td>

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1958</td> First SAGE system is deployed, featuring a state of the art 19-inch CRT screen which could be interacted with using a light pen. The system is used to track aircraft.</td> http://www.i-programmer.info/history/machines/441-sage.html</td> nadiaz</td>

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1960</td> Ted Nelson began Project Xanadu with the ultimate goal of having a computer network but combining that with an easy user interface.</td> “History of Search Engines: From 1945 to Google Today.” Search Engine History.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 March 2016.</td> hanguyen</td>

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1961</td> An IBM 704 becomes the first computer to sing. The song is "Daisy Bell", which is famously sung by the computer HAL in the film 2001: A Space Odyssey (in reference to this event). Video: </td> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=41U78QP8nBk </td> jdfrench</td>

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1961</td> First Wearable</td> Edward O. Thorp. 1998. The Invention of the First Wearable Computer. In Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC '98). IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, 4-.</td> akshoop</td>

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1961</td> First symbolic integration program SAINT, developed by James Salgle in Lisp, which solved college freshman-level calculus problems. </td> http://www.softwarepreservation.org/projects/LISP/MIT/MIT-LCS-TR-047-corrected-ocr.pdf</td> allewis</td>

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1962</td> The first communication satellite, Telstar, is launched into orbit</td> http://www.wirelesshistoryfoundation.org/wireless-history-project/wireless-history-timeline </td> zrrobbins</td>

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1962</td> J.C.R Licklider first proposes a global computer network</td> www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td> pmcraft</td>

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1962</td> Leonard Kleinrock develops the idea of packet switching</td> www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td> pmcraft</td>

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1962</td> The first industrial arm robot is introduced. Called the Unimate it is used for dangerous tasks on a General Motors assembly line</td> </td> eosowski</td>

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1962</td> Ivan Sutherkand introduces SketchPad, a line drawing device that utilizes light pens for illustration.</td> Sutherland, I. (1964). Sketch pad a man-machine graphical communication system. Proceedings of the SHARE Design Automation Workshop on - DAC '64, 6.329-6.346. Retrieved September 4, 2015, from ACM.</td> tjnickerson</td>

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1962</td> Mainframe computer game Spacewar! is written at MIT.</td> </td> bli</td>

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1962</td> IBM developed a speech recognition device which was capable of recognizing 16 words, which included numbers less than 10, 4 mathematical operation commands, and the words “off” and “false”.</td> "Pioneering Speech Recognition." IBM100 - Icons of Progress. IBM, n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2015.</td> leantul</td>

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1963</td> Phillips releases its compact cassette, a major breakthrough in tape cassettes. It is not the first "tape" based recording device, but it is the best, most compact, and quickly becomes the standard for all tapes/players.</td> </td> rpdabrowski</td>

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1963</td> The RAND Tablet is introduced. It is claimed to be the first digital graphic device that is low cost.</td> </td> wtao</td>

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1963</td> Ted Nelson “coined the term hypertext”, which allowed for associations between links to be made (similar to how the human brain works).</td> “History of Search Engines: From 1945 to Google Today.” Search Engine History.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 March 2016.</td> hanguyen</td>

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1963</td> Sutherland introduces the Sketchpad system. This would mainly be used for drawing.</td> A brief history of human-computer interaction technology. Interactions, 5(2), 44-54. </td>
djkiourtsis
</td>

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1964</td> Desktop electric calculators raise in popularity. Use thousands of transistors and cost thousands of dollars for companies to purchase.</td> http://www.vintagecalculators.com/html/history_of_electronic_calculat.htm Visited: 9/3/2015</td> dssilva</td>

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1964</td> The IBM 360 becomes the first computer to be mass-produced</td> </td> eosowski</td>

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1964</td> The efficiency of a Packet-Switched network is demonstrated in a study done for the US Air Force.</td> Roberts, Lawrence G. The evolution of packet switching, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.wpi.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1455410 (9/2/2015)</td> svadlamudi</td>

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1964</td> The “Talking Typewriter” was developed as a tool to help individuals with disabilities and children based on a pre-determined lesson.</td> Sanderson, Barbara A., and Daniel W. Kratochvil. "The Edison Responsive Environment Learning System, or the Talking Typewriter." (1972): 1-34. American Institute for Research in the Behavioral Sciences. Web. 4 Sept. 2015.</td> leantul</td>

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1965</td> The mouse is developed at Stanford to replace the existing light pens.</td> A brief history of human-computer interaction technology. Interactions, 5(2), 44-54.
</td>
djkiourtsis</td>

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1965</td> E.A. Johnson publishes an article on the design of a capacitive touchscreen. He later published a more complete article with photos two years later in 1967.</td> </td> djbenson</td>

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1965</td> Lawrence Roberts connects a computer in MA to one in CA</td> www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td> pmcraft</td>

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1965</td> MIT's CTSS, a campus wide network</td> </td> emilymiller</td>

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1965</td> Same computer Messagign system developed at MIT - named MAILBOX</td> </td> w.gomez.r</td>

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1965</td> Moore's Law (# of transistors in an IC double ~ 2 years)</td> Moore, Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits, http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~fussell/courses/cs352h/papers/moore.pdf</td> xjjackson</td>

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1966</td> The first hand-held electric calculator is invented by Texas Instruments, Incorporated.</td> http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015</td> dssilva</td>

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1966</td> The Stanform Research Institute creates Shakey, the first mobile robot to know and react to its own actions.</td> </td> eosowski</td>

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1967</td> Richard Greenblatt writes MacHack, the first program to play chess that can defeat human opponents.</td> </td> eosowski</td>

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1967</td> The Datapoint 3300 terminal is released, using a small CRT display capable of displaying 24-25 lines of text.</td> http://www.hpmuseum.net/display_item.php?hw=94http://www.swtpc.com/mholley/History/TVT_History.htm</td> nadiaz</td>

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1968</td> George H. Heilmeier and his team invent the first Liquid Crystal Displays</td> http://ethw.org/Milestones:Liquid_Crystal_Display_1968</td> nadiaz</td>

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1968</td> FCC, in the Carterphone case, ruled to allow external devices to be connected to AT&T telephone line network. Paving the way for future network devices.</td> Johnson, Nicholas, Carterphone: My Story, http://ssrn.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/abstract=2173506 (9/3/2015)</td> svadlamudi</td>

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1968</td> Computer Based Head Mounted Display</td> Ivan E. Sutherland. 1968. A head-mounted three dimensional display. In Proceedings of the December 9-11, 1968, fall joint computer conference, part I (AFIPS '68 (Fall, part I)). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 757-764</td> akshoop</td>

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1968</td> Douglas Engelbart gives the “mother of all demos”, introducing both the computer mouse and multiwindow display.</td> Quinn, M. (2005). Catalysts For Change. In Ethics for the information age (pp. 34-35). Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson/Addison-Wesley.</td> tjnickerson</td>

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1969</td> ARPANET goes online connecting UCLA, Stanford, UCSB, and UU</td> www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td> pmcraft</td>

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1969</td> The internet begins as ARPANET, which is commissioned by the DoD. The first nodes are created at UCLA, SRI, UCSB, and the University of Utah.</td> Hobbes, Hobbes’ Abridged Internet Timeline, http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/mitra/honors/timeline.html(9/3/2015) </td> JRWatson</td>

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1969</td> Victor Scheinman, a mechanical engineering student working in the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Lab creates the Stanford Arm, which is still a standard today</td> </td> eosowski</td>

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1969</td> DHL was founded. [</td> </td> tpatikorn</td>

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1969</td> UNIX is created.</td> http://www.computerworld.com/article/2531905/operating-systems/timeline--40-years-of-os-milestones.html</td> rdomanico</td>

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1969</td> University of California in Los Angeles becomes the first connection pointf of ARPANET.</td> Shinder, Debra L., Computer Networking Essentials (Cisco Press, 2001), 3. http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/book/networking/1587130386/introduction-to-pc-networking/3?uicode=wpi (9/2/2015)</td> svadlamudi</td>

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1964 - 1971</td> The Moog Synthesizer becomes the first to ever be mass produced.</td> </td> rpdabrowski</td>

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1970</td> Alan Kay joins Engelbar to found the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC).</td> Quinn, M. (2005). Catalysts For Change. In Ethics for the information age (pp. 34-35). Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson/Addison-Wesley.</td> tjnickerson</td>

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1970</td> NiMH batteries emerge, proving to be powerful batteries with long lifespans and also better for the environment than cadmium-based batteries.</td> </td> djlaplante</td>

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1970</td> Lucifer algorithm developed, later evolved into triple-DES (Data Encryption Standard)</td> </td> zhenhe</td>

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1971</td> The National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation (N.A.S.D.A.Q.) opens its first day of trading, becoming the world’s first electronic stock market.</td> http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/timeline/crash/2/</td> tleung</td>

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1971</td> The “Advanced Research Projects Agency”, also known as ARPA, decided to financially back a five year project to further speech understanding and set the criteria that all machines must be able to understand 1000 chosen words with a maximum failure rate of 10%.</td> Gold, Bernard, Nelson Morgan, and Dan Ellis. "Chapter 4: Brief History of Automatic Speech Recognition." Speech and Audio Signal Processing: Processing and Perception of Speech and Music. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2011. N. pag. Print.</td> leantul</td>

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1971</td> 13 additional organizations are connected to ARPANET. This number begins to rapidly expand.</td> www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td> pmcraft</td>

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1972</td> The PLATO IV terminal is released, with a novel orange plasma display capable of displaying a 512x512 bitmap. This terminal also had infrared touch screen support.</td> http://history-computer.com/ModernComputer/Basis/touch_screen.html</td> nadiaz</td>

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1972</td> University of Illinois students file a patent for optical touchscreens and it is implemented in the Magnavox Plato IV Terminal. This is the first touchscreen used in a classroom. Thousands of them were built for this machine. </td> </td> djbenson</td>

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1972</td> First home video game</td> </td> blammeson</td>

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1972</td> Pulsar all electric digital watch released </td> </td> hsahay</td>

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1972</td> Telnet was published as an RFC</td> www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td> pmcraft</td>

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1972</td> Several new companies enter the calculator market, rapidly developing electronic calculating technology and prices become affordable to the public.</td> http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015</td> dssilva</td>

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1972</td> Ray Tomilson develops system for addressing messages to users in diffrent computers - Emergence of "<a href="mailto:to-user@destination">to-user@destination</a>" syntax</td> </td> w.gomez.r</td>

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1972</td> An early touch screen is developed in the University of Illinois. It allowed users to interact with computers using their hands by using light rays.</td> Some Milestones in Computer Input Devices: An Informal Timeline, http://www.billbuxton.com/inputTimeline.html (accessed March 21, 2016).
</td>
djkiourtsis</td>

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1970s - 1990s</td> Lithium and lithium ion batteries invented, with the extremely energy-dense material lithium and a maliable model, allowing them to be built specific for devices. Very popular for smaller (portable) electronics.</td> </td> djlaplante</td>

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1971</td> The first microprocessor was created by Ted Hoff at Intel</td> </td> eosowski</td>

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1971</td> Intel 4004 - first single chip microprocessor</td> </td> dstapply</td>

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1972</td> Intel releases the Intel 8008</td> Ceruzzi, Paul E. (May 2003). A History of Modern Computing(2nd ed.). MIT Press. pp. 220–221.</td> ajthompson</td>

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1973</td> Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf develop the TCP protocol. They release a paper on TCP in September. Bob Metcalfe begins development on Ethernet at Xerox PARC.</td> Computer History Museum, Internet History, http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/internet_history_70s.html (9/3/2015) </td> JRWatson</td>

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1973</td> FTP was published as an RFC. All other RFCs become available through FTP</td> www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td> pmcraft</td>

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1973</td> Israel develops the Mastiff UAV and soon after the IIA Scout, the first UAVs meant for data collection</td> http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone</td> addresser</td>

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1973</td> The Xerox Alto features a CRT with a 606x808 pixel display, which was used to show one of the first GUIs.</td> http://www.digibarn.com/collections/systems/xerox-alto/</td> nadiaz</td>

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1973</td> National Semiconductor releases the IMP-16, 16-bit microprocessor</td> http://bitsavers.org/pdf/national/imp/4200002B_IMP16_pgmg_Nov73.pdf,</td> ajthompson</td>

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1973</td> Freddy Robot built by The Assembly Robotics Group at University of Edinburgh, which is capable of using visual perception to autonomously assemble wooden block models.</td> http://www.aiai.ed.ac.uk/project/freddy/</td> allewis</td>

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1973</td> NAVSTAR GPS Joint Program Office (JPO) established by Department of Defense to create GPS for military and civilians</td> </td> gmport</td>

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1974</td> Work on Ethernet is completed at Xerox PARC. ARPANET begins to implement TCP.</td> Computer History Museum, Internet History, http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/internet_history_70s.html (9/3/2015) </td> JRWatson</td>

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1974</td> The Silver Arm, which performed small-parts assembly using feedback from touch and pressure centers is created.</td> </td> </td>

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1974</td> Transfer Control Protocl (TCP) specifications are published by two DARPA engineers to make packet transfer simpler.</td> Mowery, David C., and Timothy Simcoe, Is the internet a US invention?-an economic and technological history of computer networking, http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/science/article/pii/S0048733302000690 (9/2/2015)</td> svadlamudi</td>

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1975</td> Electric calculator manufacturers take over the calculator market through the use of mass production. Mechanical calculator sales decline rapidly.</td> http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/cgi/computing-timeline.pl Visited: 9/3/2015</td> dssilva</td>

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1975</td> Arithmetic Coding developed</td> </td> bjsharron</td>

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1975</td> A patent is granted to George Samuel Hurst for developing the first resistive touchscreen. He is widely seen as the inventor of the touchscreen. </td> </td> djbenson</td>

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1975</td> Calculator Wristwatch</td> http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,879586,00.html</td> akshoop</td>

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1975</td> The BitPad that is more similar to modern graphics and drawing tablet is introduced by Summagraphics Corporation.</td> </td> wtao</td>

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1976</td> CP/M is created, and becomes a model for DOS variations for approx. 2 decades.</td> http://www.computerworld.com/article/2531905/operating-systems/timeline--40-years-of-os-milestones.html</td> rdomanico</td>

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1977</td> The Apple II releases, offering buyers the option to purchase a “Sup’r’mod” alongside it to use their television as a monitor.</td> http://apple2history.org/history/ah03/</td> nadiaz</td>

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1977</td> Deep space explorers Voyagers 1 and 2 launch from the Kennedy Space Center</td> </td> esowowski</td>

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1977</td> Sony Walkman: Cassette recorders - The famous walkman developed by Sony sold millions of copies. Become of a huge reduced price, teenagers are open to the world of cassette recorders. This makes cassette recorders very poplular quickly.</td> </td> bangyan</td>

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1977</td> International Computer Chess Association founded</td> </td> cpnota</td>

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1977</td> 'Synclavier' is invented and designed to construct every sequence of numbers, every sound, all by itself. It digitally synthesizes sounds from nothing but numbers.</td> </td> rpdabrowski</td>

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1977</td> BSD is created, and Radio Shack releases its line of affordable home computers.</td> http://www.computerworld.com/article/2531905/operating-systems/timeline--40-years-of-os-milestones.html</td> rdomanico</td>

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1977-8</td> LZ77/LZ78 Dictionary Compression Algorithms developed</td> </td> bjsharron</td>

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1978</td> The first solar-powered and credit card sized calculators are put on the market such as the “Teal Photon.”</td> http://www.vintagecalculators.com/html/teal_photon.html Visited: 9/3/2015</td> dssilva</td>

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1978</td> Marantz builds his "Pianocorder", which records the players notes on a cassette tape so that they may be played back on the same piano.</td> </td> rpdabrowski</td>

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1978</td> Intel 8086, the first x86 processor using ~30k transistors</td> </td> ndemarinis</td>

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1978</td> First GPS Block I satellites were built by Rockwell International and launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base</td> </td> gmport</td>

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1978</td> RSA algorithm published</td> </td> zhenhe</td>

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1978</td> Apple releases Apple-DOS. This was Apple's first OS. It used a command line interface.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

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1978</td> Sony engineers create a prototype of the Walkman</td> http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/03/from-walkman-to-ipod-what-music-tech-teaches-us-about-innovation/253158/</td> wofrick</td>

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1979</td> Apple begins work on Lisa, the first consumer-based computer with a graphical user interface based around the desktop metaphor. However, the device is slow, overpriced and poorly received.</td> Perkins, R., Keller, D., & Ludolph, F. (1997). Inventing the Lisa user interface. Interactions, 40-53.</td> tjnickerson</td>

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1979</td> Motorola creates the Motorola MC68000, one of the earliest 32-bit microprocessors (though it only used 32-bit registers, all other components were 24-bit or 16-bit), which went on to be used in the Apple Lisa and Macintosh </td> <a href="https://exchange.wpi.edu/owa/redir.aspx?SURL=GiaRV3xcQMag4ztKcDGzoDNUyEul90iDGXKwnX1q-RNPN1-TElLTCGgAdAB0AHAAOgAvAC8AcAByAGkAbwByAGEAcgB0AGQAYQB0AGEAYgBhAHMAZQAuAGMAbwBtAC8ASQBQAEMATwBNAC8AMAAwADAAMAA1ADkANgA3ADkA&URL=http%3a%2f%2fpriorartdatabase.com%2fIPCOM%2f000059679" target="_blank" style="font-family: Tahoma; font-size: 13.3333px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 20px; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: -24px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;">http://priorartdatabase.com/IPCOM/000059679#</a></td> ajthompson</td>

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1979</td> The Stanford Cart, built by Hans Moravec, navigates the Stanford AI Lab through an assortment of chairs to become the first computer-controlled autonomous vehicle. </td>
http://web.stanford.edu/~learnest/cart.htm</td>
allewis</td>

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1979</td> Intel 8088 used in IBM-PC</td> </td> dstapply</td>

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1980</td> The Sony Walkman is released</td> </td> rpdabrowski</td>

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1980</td> Microsoft releases MS-DOS. It creates an interface to access a computer's hardware making computers available to a larger audience.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

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1980</td> Backpack Computer</td> http://wearcam.org/ieeecomputer/r2025.htm ; Steve Mann. 1997. “Smart clothing”: wearable multimedia computing and “personal imaging” to restore the technological balance between people and their environments. In Proceedings of the fourth ACM international conference on Multimedia (MULTIMEDIA '96). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 163-174.</td> akshoop</td>

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1980</td> LZW Algorithm developed from LZ78 and became popular in many systems such as modems</td> </td> bjsharron</td>

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1980</td> Defense Department officially adopts TCP/IP replacing NCP</td> www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td> pmcraft</td>

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1980</td> FBI investigates a breach of security at the National CSS.</td> http://www.cnn.com/2015/03/11/tech/computer-hacker-essay-414s/</td> ajmokotoff</td>

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1981</td> Danny Hillis designs The Connection Machine, which utilizes parallel computing to bring new power to AI.</td> https://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/14719/18524280-MIT.pdf?sequence=2</td> allewis</td>

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1981</td> Ian Murphy, known as Cptain Zap, was the first hacker to be tried and convicted as a felon. He broke into AT&T's computers in 1981 and changed the billing rates.</td> http://hackstory.net/Captain_Zap</td> ajmokotoff</td>

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1981</td> Hacking group "Warelords" is founded. They successfully infilrtrated corporations and institutions such as teh White House, Southwestern Bell, and many corporate providers of voice mail systems.</td> http://hacker1malaysia.blogspot.com/</td> ajmokotoff</td>

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1981</td> MTV airs playing music videos, introducing a recorded version of a live "show" with music.</td> </td> rpdabrowski</td>

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1981</td> Takeo Kanade builds the direct drive arm, where motors are directly installed into the joints, making it faster and more accurate than previous robotic arms</td> </td> eosowski</td>

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1981</td> The IBM PC is released, along with the introduction of PC-DOS and MS-DOS.</td> [1] http://www.computerworld.com/article/2531905/operating-systems/timeline--40-years-of-os-milestones.html</td> rdomanico</td>

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1982</td> Albums start to be released on CD</td> </td> rpdabrowski</td>

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1982</td> Seiko TV Watch worn by James Bond </td> </td> hsahay</td>

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1982</td> Music CD - Introduced in 1982 but did not become a big hit. It took a decade for CD to take the market of cassettes. Soon in 1990s, CD players become the most popular music recorders.</td> </td> bangyan</td>

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1982</td> The Input Research Group at the University of Toronto develop the first multi touch interface.</td> </td> djbenson</td>

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1982</td> The IBM “Talking Terminal” was invented and dictated whatever may be presently displayed on the computer screen which was found to be very useful for individuals unable to read the screen on their own.</td> " IBM Hursley brings colour and speech to computing." IBM100 - Icons of Progress. IBM, n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2015.</td> leantul</td>

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1982</td> First deployment of wide scale wireless analog networks</td> </td> tasellielund</td>

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1983</td> MIDI was created. It goes on to become the standard for controlling synthesizers and digital keyboards, and later evolves to include many different capabilities concerning digital music.</td> </td> jdfrench</td>

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1983</td> Seiko Data-2000 watch/calculator/calendar tracker </td> </td> hsahay</td>

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1983</td> Microsoft announces Microsoft Windows to compete with Apple's GUI efforts.</td> A history of Windows. (n.d.). Retrieved September 4, 2015, from http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/history.</td> tjnickerson</td>

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1983</td> Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) is established, incorporating a standard for hardware (interfaces etc.) and coded commands that make transferring "digital information between various electronic instruments as well as between instruments and computers" very easy.</td> </td> rpdabrowski</td>

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1983</td> DARPA Miniature GPS Receiver (MGR) program began</td> </td> gmport</td>

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1983</td> 1983- ARPANET adopts TCP/IP as standard protocols. ARPANET splits into MILNET, a network for defense R&D and operational groups, and ARPANET, which is now a completely research based network. Desktop workstations with built in IP networking software are created and connected to ARPANET. DNS is developed by Jon Postel and Paul Mockapetris of USC and Craig Partridge of BBN.</td> Barry M. Leiner, et al., A Brief History of the Internet, http://www.cs.ucsb.edu/~almeroth/classes/F10.176A/papers/internet-history-09.pdf (9/3/2015) Hobbes, Hobbes’ Abridged Internet Timeline, http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/mitra/honors/timeline.html(9/3/2015) Computer History Museum, Internet History, http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/internet_history_80s.html (9/3/2015) </td> JRWatson</td>

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1983</td> Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is made a requirement for the NSFNET.</td> Leiner, Barry M. et al. A brief history of the internet, http://dl.acm.org.ezproxy.wpi.edu/ft_gateway.cfm?id=1629613&ftid=608056&coll=DL&dl=ACM&CFID=542592391&CFTOKEN=52418481 (9/2/2015)</td> svadlamudi</td>

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1983</td> The "414s" break into 60 computer systems at institutions including Los Alamaos National Laboratory and Manhattan's Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. As a result the U.S. House of Representatives held hearings on computer security and passed several laws.</td> http://computersprogramm.blogspot.com/p/computer-hack.html</td> ajmokotoff</td>

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1983</td> Charles Walton is credited with developing RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology</td> http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/News/Press_Archive/200209/02-0905E/ </td> zrrobins</td>

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1984</td> Bell Labs researcher Bob Boie releases the first multi-touch screen.</td> </td> djbenson</td>

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1984</td> protocol proposing quantum encryption published</td> </td> zhenhe</td>

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1984</td> The X Window System is developed at MIT.</td> Scheifler, R., & Gettys, J. (1986). The X Window System. TOG ACM Trans. Graph. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 5(2), 79-109.</td> tjnickerson</td>

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1984</td> Apple releases the Macintosh, the first affordable GUI-based computer.</td> Quinn, M. (2005). Catalysts For Change. In Ethics for the information age (pp. 34-35). Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson/Addison-Wesley.</td> tjnickerson</td>

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1984</td> Apple releases System 1. System 1 no longer had a command line. It used a GUI and introduced the finder and menu bar.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

1984</td> DNS begins to be implemented within the internet.</td> Hobbes, Hobbes’ Abridged Internet Timeline, http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/mitra/honors/timeline.html(9/3/2015) Computer History Museum, Internet History, http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/internet_history_80s.html (9/3/2015) </td> JRWatson</td>

</tr>

1984</td> The Domain Name Server (DNS) is introduced to translate computer addresses (74.125.224.72) into human readable and recognazible addresses (www.google.com)</td> Mowery, David C., and Timothy Simcoe, Is the internet a US invention?-an economic and technological history of computer networking, http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/science/article/pii/S0048733302000690 (9/2/2015)</td> svadlamudi</td>

</tr>

1984</td> KoalaPad is produced by Koala Technologies for home computer. It has two extra programmable buttons at the top and also a pressure-sensitive stylus.</td> </td> wtao</td>

</tr>

1984</td> Wacom launched "WT Series", world's first tablet to use a cordless electronic pen.</td> </td> wtao</td>

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1984</td> Sony releases the Discman D-50, the first portable CD player</td> http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,2023689_2023681_2023585,00.html</td> wofrick</td>

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1985</td>

<p>NEC Multisync is released, the first monitor offering a range of refresh rates, resolutions, and input formats</p> </td>

<p>PC Mag, Aug 1987 pg.45 [accessed via Google Books]</p> </td>

nadiaz</td>

</tr>

1985</td>

<p>Yoshiro Hatano published research that suggests that everyone should aim for 10,000 steps per day, this promotes the Japanese manpo-kei meaning 10,000 steps meter</p> </td>

<p>Tudor-Locke, C., Hatano, Y., Pangrazi, R. P., & Kang, M. (2008). Revisiting``how many steps are enough?. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 40(7), S537.</p> </td>

tjaskoviak</td>

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1985</td> The Casio fx-7000G is released, the world’s first scientific graphing calculator.</td> http://www.casio-intl.com/asia-mea/en/calc/history/ Visited: 9/3/2015</td> dssilva</td>

</tr>

1985</td> Apple releases System 2. System 2 was faster than System 1 and introduced a few user friendly commands.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

1985</td> Brothers in Arms by the Dire Straits becomes the first music CD to sell one million copies</td> http://www.wired.com/2009/09/1001first-cd-players/</td> wofrick</td>

</tr>

1985</td> Microsoft releases Windows 1.0. It's the first Windows OS to have a GUI which meant the OS could be learned easily and intuitively. It also allowed users to switch between programs without closing one in order to open another. The OS included many tools that were useful such as Paint and Notepad.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

1985</td> Nintendo releases the Nintendo Entertainment System and Super Mario Bros. Alex Pajitnov designs Tetris.</td> </td> bli</td>

</tr>

1985</td> U.S. Federal Communications Commission released the ISM band. </td> https://web.archive.org/web/20070928054826/</td> hfang</td>

</tr>

1985</td> Intel 80386 32bit released</td> </td> dstapply</td>

</tr>

1986</td> Apple releases System 3. It uses a hierarchical file system.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

1986</td> Honda begins a robot research program that starts with the premise that a robot "should coexist and cooperate with human beings, by doing what a person cannot do and by cultivating a new dimension in mobility to ultimately benefit society.</td> </td> eosowski</td>

</tr>

1986</td> First graphical point of sale system was done on the Atari 520ST with a color touch screen.</td> </td> djbenson</td>

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1986</td> OS/2 is released, and is designed to work with Intel's 80286 and 80386 microprocessors. When IBM and Microsoft's agreement falls apart, OS/2 becomes an IBM product while Windows names its graphical OS Windows NT.</td> [1] http://www.computerworld.com/article/2531905/operating-systems/timeline--40-years-of-os-milestones.html</td> rdomanico</td>

</tr>

1986</td> National Science Foundation funds a 56Kbps cross-country network backbones</td> www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td> pmcraft</td>

</tr>

1986</td> After more break-ins to government and corporate computers, Congress passes the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, which makes it a crime to hack into a computer system.</td> https://faculty.ist.psu.edu/bagby/43205S/T6/portalprojectfinishedversion.htm</td> ajmokotoff</td>

</tr>

1986</td> DARPA funded databases to be created to help store words, and sentences to be used to help assist in analyzing the performance of new technologies in speech recognition.</td> Gold, Bernard, Nelson Morgan, and Dan Ellis. "Chapter 4: Brief History of Automatic Speech Recognition." Speech and Audio Signal Processing: Processing and Perception of Speech and Music. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2011. N. pag. Print.</td> leantul</td>

</tr>

1986</td> US and Israel work together to create the RQ2 Pioneer based on the Mastiff and IIA Scout. Soon afterwards, Abraham Kareium, a Israel Engineering living in the United States, creates the NAT 750, the predecessor to the Predator.</td> http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone</td> addresser</td>

</tr>

1987</td> The Sphinx-I released as one of the early commercial speech recognition systems, allowing users to give voice commands to computers.</td> A historical perspective of speech recognition. Communications of the ACM, 57(1), 94-103.
</td>

djkiourtsis</td>

</tr>

1987</td> Digital Hearing Aids</td> http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4111501/</td> akshoop</td>

</tr>

1987</td> The HP-28C is released, the first calculator able to solve symbolic computations.</td> http://www.hpmuseum.org/hp28c.htm Visited: 9/3/2015</td> dssilva</td>

</tr>

1987</td> First Megapixel Sensor - Kodak develops the first sensor to record digital images, signifying the digital transformation away from film. From this point, the digital camera makes gradual improvements in sensor size and memory capacity to become what a modern camera would be considered today.</td> </td> tjstone</td>

</tr>

1987</td> Apple releases System 4. System 4 fixed bugs that System 3 had.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

1987</td> Microsoft releases Windows 2.0. Windows 2.0 was the first OS to use desktop icons and allowed windows to overlap.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

1988</td> DARPA’s GPS Guidance Package (GGP) program began to prevent jamming the satellites</td> </td> gmport</td>

</tr>

1988</td> Apple releases System 6. System 6 allowed the user to launch multiple applications and change between them.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

1988</td> “Lift off strategy” is introduced to increase accuracy and precision by the Computer Interaction Lab at the University of Maryland.</td> </td> djbenson</td>

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1988</td> First National Bank of Chicago is the victim of a $70-million computer theft</td> http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1988-05-19/news/8803180387_1_chase-manhattan-bank-wire-transfers-sources</td> ajmokotoff</td>

</tr>

1989</td> First successful handheld game system</td> </td> blammeson</td>

</tr>

1989</td> A walking robot named Genghis is unveiled by the Mobile Robots Group at MIT</td> </td> eosowski</td>

</tr>

1989</td> CERN scientist Tim Berners-Lee comes up with the concept for the “World Wide Web” in order to create a standardized way for computers to communicate across networks.</td> Tim Berners-Lee, Information Management: A Proposal, http://www.w3.org/History/1989/proposal.html (9/3/2015) Computer History Museum, Internet History, http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/internet_history_80s.html (9/3/2015) Pew Research Center, World Wide Web Timeline, http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/03/11/world-wide-web-timeline/ (9/3/2015) </td> JRWatson</td>

</tr>

1989</td> MP3 first patented</td> </td> bjsharron</td>

</tr>

1989</td> Robert Morris created the “first computer worm”. The virus was extremely effective and quickly took down most of the internet. This stack is considered the first DoS (denial of service) attack. Laid the groundwork for the cyber security industry. Led to the establishment of CERTs (Computer Emergency Response Teams).</td> http://www.infosecurity-magazine.com/opinions/the-history-of-cybersecurity/</td> ajmokotoff</td>

</tr>

1989</td> NeXT launches NeXTSTEP, a graphical operating system that is eventually incorporated into Apple's Cocoa framework, and thus present-day OS X.</td> Linzmayer, O. (1999). Apple confidential the real story of Apple Computer, Inc. San Francisco, Calif.: No Starch Press.</td> tjnickerson</td>

</tr>

1989</td> Peter Deutsch and Alan Emtage create an archiver for FTP sites</td> www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td> pmcraft</td>

</tr>

1989</td> First proposal for the World Wide Web created and circulated at CERN</td> info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/History.html</td> pmcraft</td>

</tr>

1989</td> operational Block II satellites launched by United States</td> </td> gmport</td>

</tr>

1990</td> NeXT develops a prototype for the WWW</td> info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/History.html</td> pmcraft</td>

</tr>

1990</td> Microsoft ships Windows 3.0, the first multiwindowed Windows operating system.</td> A history of Windows. (n.d.). Retrieved September 4, 2015, from http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/history.</td> tjnickerson</td>

</tr>

1990</td> Microsoft releases Windows 3.0. It's the first Microsoft OS to use virtual memory, giving it a substantial performance increase. It used 16 colors.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

1990</td> ARPANET is shut down. Tim Berners-Lee develops the first web server. He also develops the first web browser, WorldWideWeb. The first search tool, ARCHIE, is created by Alan Emtage. The first commercial internet provider, The World, offers dial-up Internet access to the general public.</td> Hobbes, Hobbes’ Abridged Internet Timeline, http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/mitra/honors/timeline.html(9/3/2015) Computer History Museum, Internet History, http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/internet_history_80s.html (9/3/2015) Pew Research Center, World Wide Web Timeline, http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/03/11/world-wide-web-timeline/ (9/3/2015)</td> JRWatson</td>

</tr>

1990</td> Archie was the first search engine created. Alan Emtage created Archie and it originally only had a specific filename database that could be searched.</td> “History of Search Engines: From 1945 to Google Today.” Search Engine History.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 March 2016.</td> hanguyen</td>

</tr>

1990</td> ZIP file format created</td> </td> bjsharron</td>

</tr>

1990</td> The Computer Misuse Act 1990 is passed in the United Kingdom, criminalizing any unauthorized access to computer systems</td> http://searchsecurity.techtarget.co.uk/definition/Computer-Misuse-Act-1990</td> ajmokotoff</td>

</tr>

1990</td> Dragon Systems creation, “Dragon Dictate”, was “…the first large-vocabulary speech-to-text system for general-purpose dictation".</td> Thompson, Terry. "Tech Tips: Are You Talking To Your Computer Again?"DO-IT. University of Washington, n.d. Web. 4 Sept. 2015.</td> leantul</td>

</tr>

1990</td> Early books published on VR impact</td> </td> blammeson</td>

</tr>

1990</td> Military contractor General Atomic purchases the design of the NAT 750</td> http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone</td> addresser</td>

</tr>

1991</td> WaveLan was invented, which was considered to be the precursor to 802.11ac</td> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wi-Fi#cite_note-3
</td>
hfang</td>

</tr>

1991</td> Sun Systems releases a prototype Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) with inertial scrolling. </td> </td> djbenson</td>

</tr>

1991</td> Apple releases System 7. This OS introduced shortcuts, network sharing capabilities, and numerous user friendly features. It also used virtual memory which sped up performance.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

1991</td> First quantum encryption system developed</td> </td> zhenhe</td>

</tr>

1991</td> Time Berners-Lee creates the first website</td> info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/History.html</td> pmcraft</td>

</tr>

1991</td> First user friendly interface for the internet is created at University of Minnesota</td> www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td> pmcraft</td>

</tr>

1991</td> The first webcam is created and connected to the World Wide Web. NSF lifts all restrictions on commercial use of the internet.</td> Pew Research Center, World Wide Web Timeline, http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/03/11/world-wide-web-timeline/ (9/3/2015) Computer History Museum, Internet History, http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/internet_history_90s.html (9/3/2015)</td> JRWatson</td>

</tr>

1991</td> Linux, an open source OS kernel based on Unix is released. Linux incorporates GNU software and later becomes known as an array of open source operating systems, or Linux distributions.</td> [1] http://www.computerworld.com/article/2531905/operating-systems/timeline--40-years-of-os-milestones.html</td> rdomanico</td>

</tr>

1991</td> Veronica was a user interface created in a similar vein as Archie but used text files. Jughead followed and was used for the same purpose to search files sent using Gopher index systems.</td> “History of Search Engines: From 1945 to Google Today.” Search Engine History.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 March 2016.</td> hanguyen</td>

</tr>

1991-2</td> JPEG created by its namesake, the Joint Photographic Expert Group allowing for adjustable compression of images</td> </td> bjsharron</td>

</tr>

1992</td> MPEG Audio Layer 3 (MP3) is standardized, making it simpler for all groups to digitally encode and use music.</td> </td> </td>

</tr>

1992</td> The first widely popular internet browser, Mosaic is developed by NCSA in the University of Illinois.</td> Computer History Museum, Internet History, http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/internet_history_90s.html (9/3/2015)</td> JRWatson</td>

</tr>

1992</td> World Wide Web comes online, eventually hosting music of all kinds among other things.</td> </td> </td>

</tr>

1992</td> GSM networks begin deployment</td> </td> tasellielund</td>

</tr>

1992</td> Over 10 million cell phone users </td> http://www.wirelesshistoryfoundation.org/wireless-history-project/wireless-history-timeline </td> zrrobbins</td>

</tr>

1992</td> First SMS is sent</td> </td> emilymiller</td>

</tr>

1993</td> IBM releases the first touchscreen phone with BellSouth. It is call the Simon Personal Communicator.</td> </td> djbenson</td>

</tr>

1993</td> Original Pentium core by Intel, using 3.1 million transistors</td> </td> ndemarinis</td>

</tr>

1993</td> Microsoft releases Windows NT. It was the first 32 bit OS, which meant computers could have more scientific and engineering uses.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

1993</td> Mosaic is released to the general public. It is credited with the popularization of the World Wide Web. Mosaic will later become Netscape. CERN makes its World Wide Web technology public domain.</td> Hobbes, Hobbes’ Abridged Internet Timeline, http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/mitra/honors/timeline.html (9/3/2015) Computer History Museum, Internet History, http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/internet_history_90s.html (9/3/2015) Pew Research Center, World Wide Web Timeline, http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/03/11/world-wide-web-timeline/ (9/3/2015)</td> JRWatson</td>

</tr>

1993</td> “World Wide Web Wanderer” was created by Matthew Gray, initially called Wandex. It allowed people to know how fast the Internet was growing.</td> “The History of Search Engines – An Infographic.” History of Search Engines. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 March 2016.</td> hanguyen</td>

</tr>

1993</td> ALIWEB was created by Martijn Koster. It allowed users to provide descriptions of their pages which could then be searched in the index. </td> “The History of Search Engines – An Infographic.” History of Search Engines. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 March 2016.</td> hanguyen</td>

</tr>

1989</td> The “Melissa” and “ILOVEYOU” viruses were created and infected over ten million PCs and destroyed much of the existing email systems. This viruses led to the creation of antivirus technology and business to take a proactive approach. This also led to a culture of computer users being more hesitant to opening files from unknown sources. This began to frighten companies and their computer systems.</td> http://www.infosecurity-magazine.com/opinions/the-history-of-cybersecurity/</td> ajmokotoff</td>

</tr>

1993</td> Mosaic, the first web browser, is created by NCSA</td> www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td> pmcraft</td>

</tr>

1994</td> Michael Dertouzos persuades Tim Berners-Lee and others to create the World Wide Web Consortium</td> www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td> pmcraft</td>

</tr>

1994</td> Dante II, an 8-legged walking robot descends into the crater of Mt Spurr in Alaska to collect data from the harsh volcanic environment</td> </td> eosowski</td>

</tr>

1994</td> Lycos was the first “spider technology” used to access pages and their hyperlinks to determine relationships and information contained on the page.</td> Agarwal, M., & Round, D. K. (2011). The emergence of global search engines: Trends in history and competition. Competition Policy International, 7(1), 114-134.</td> hanguyen</td>

</tr>

1994</td> WebCrawler searched through the entire texts of pages. </td> Seymour, T., Frantsvog, D., & Kumar, S. (2011). History of search engines. International Journal of Management and Information Systems, 15(4), 47.</td> hanguyen</td>

</tr>

1994</td> Marc Thorpe starts Robot Wars in San Francisco, California</td> </td> eosowski</td>

</tr>

1994</td> Wireless Webcam Wearable</td> Steve Mann. 1997. “Smart clothing”: wearable multimedia computing and “personal imaging” to restore the technological balance between people and their environments. In Proceedings of the fourth ACM international conference on Multimedia (MULTIMEDIA '96). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 163-174.</td> akshoop</td>

</tr>

1994</td> WWW becomes available to everyone for free</td> </td> emilymiller</td>

</tr>

1994</td> Cookies Invented</td> </td> eapolekoff</td>

</tr>

1994</td> The first Internet stock trade is completed by K. Aufhauser & Company, Inc., launching a new era of online stock trading.</td> http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/timeline/crash/2/</td> tleung</td>

</tr>

1994</td> The Pentagon contracts General Atomic to create an updated version of the NAT 750 that would be lighter, faster, cheaper, and more versatile. Six months later the Predator drone was created.</td> http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone</td> addresser</td>

</tr>

1994</td> Bluetooth invented by Ericcson </td> http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/wireless/bluetooth/bluetooth_overview.php </td> zrrobbins</td>

</tr>

1995</td> Mobile Phones Become More Mainstream (still approx. 8"x3"x1.5")</td> </td> clhudson</td>

</tr>

1995</td> Term "User Experience Design" is coined by Don Norman</td> </td> eapolekoff</td>

</tr>

1995</td> Seiko Message Watch with caller ID, sports scores, and stock prices relseased</td> </td> hsahay</td>

</tr>

1995</td> Internet opens fully for commercial use as AOL, Prodigy, and CompuServe come online</td> www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td> pmcraft</td>

</tr>

1995</td> Microsoft releases Windows 95, the first Windows operating system to feature the start menu, task bar, and window buttons (close, minimize, maximize).</td> A history of Windows. (n.d.). Retrieved September 4, 2015, from http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/history.</td> tjnickerson</td>

</tr>

1995</td> Full Operational Capacity (FOC) of 24 operational satellites met</td> </td> gmport</td>

</tr>

1995</td> Yahoo! is founded</td> </td> dtocco</td>

</tr>

1995</td> Early robot car created by Ernst Dickmanns drives more than 1000 miles through traffic from Munich to Copenhagen and back.</td> https://partners.nytimes.com/library/cyber/week/080997othello.html</td> allewis</td>

</tr>

1995</td> Chinook checkers program defeats World Champion Don Lafferty in 32--game match to claim man-machine checkers title</td> </td> cpnota</td>

</tr>

1995</td> Microsoft releases Windows 95. Windows 95 was the first OS to feature a start menu, taskbar, and minimize, maximize, and close buttons on each window. It had Plug and Play capabilities and built in internet support.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

1995</td> The NSF stops providing the backbone support of the Internet and the Commercial Internet Service Providers take over the task.</td> Quinn, Michael J., Ethics for the Information Age (Addison-Wesley, 2014), 31.</td> svadlamudi</td>

</tr>

1995</td> Intel Pentium Pro</td> </td> dstapply</td>

</tr>

1995</td> Excite was created by Stanford undergraduates who wanted to make a more efficient search algorithm by relationships between words, such as synonyms to produce more accurate results. </td> Agarwal, M., & Round, D. K. (2011). The emergence of global search engines: Trends in history and competition. Competition Policy International, 7(1), 114-134.</td> hanguyen
</td>

</tr>

1996</td> A RoboTuna is designed and build by David Barrettto study the way fish swim</td> </td> eosowski</td>

</tr>

1996</td> “The GGP was successfully flight tested at the Patuxent Naval Air Station”</td> </td> gmport</td>

</tr>

1996</td> Researchers develop software for the LIGIER electric vehicle that allows it to autonomously parallel park.</td> Autonomous Parallel Parking of a Nonholonomic Vehicle. 1996. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.wpi.edu/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=566343. Access Date: 21 Mar 2016</td> aaadkins</td>

</tr>

1996</td> Real-time stock tickers are used on cable television channels CNBC and CNN-FN. Market data, which had previously been delayed 20 minutes, is now reported in real time.</td> http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/timeline/crash/2/</td> tleung</td>

</tr>

1996</td> PNG developed</td> </td> bjsharron</td>

</tr>

1996</td> Hackers alter Web sites of the United States Department of Justice (August), and the CIA (October), and then the U.S. Air Force (December).</td> http://www.nytimes.com/1996/12/31/us/air-force-computer-invaded-as-hackers-forge-web-page.html</td> ajmokotoff</td>

</tr>

1997</td> Apple releases Mac OS 8. OS 8 featured numerous improvements in speed and introduced pop up menus. It also had HTML help pages for the user.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

1997</td> Deep Blue defeats Chess World Champion Garry Kasparov in 6-game match</td> </td> cpnota</td>

</tr>

1997</td> The Pathfinder mission lands on Mars, where the robot Sojourner broadcasts data for 3 months</td> </td> eosowski</td>

</tr>

1997</td> Professional Go player Janice Kim overcomes whopping 25-stone handicap to defeat Handtalk, top Go program of the era</td> </td> cpnota</td>

</tr>

1997</td> First Social Networking Sites Begin to Spring Up</td> </td> eapolekoff</td>

</tr>

1997</td> There were 1 million domain registrants on the Internet</td> </td> dtocco</td>

</tr>

1997</td> IEEE released the first version of 802.11 protocol, two net bit rates of 1 or 2 megabits per second.</td> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wi-Fi#cite_note-3</td> hfang</td>

</tr>

1998</td> The Palm Pilot is released, the first touch product to have major consumer success.</td> </td> djbenson</td>

</tr>

1998</td> Google was founded. 300 web pages existed and the number was increasing by over 1.5 million daily</td> </td> dtocco</td>

</tr>

1998</td> One of the first commercial standalone LCD screens, the Eizo L66 is released</td> http://www.eizoglobal.com/support/db/files/catalogs/lcd/l360-l66.pdf</td> nadiaz</td>

</tr>

1998</td> Linux Wristwatch released </td> </td> hsahay</td>

</tr>

1998</td> Microsoft releases Windows 98. Windows 98 was the first Windows OS to be specifically for consumers. It made it easier to find programs, which meant a more user friendly experience. Windows 98 was also the first Windows OS to support reading from USB ports and DVDs.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

1998</td> Windows 98 is released with the Windows Browser bundled into it</td> www.walthowe.com/navnet/History.html</td> pmcraft</td>

</tr>

1998</td> MSN was created. </td> “The History of Search Engines – An Infographic.” History of Search Engines. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 March 2016. </td> hanguyen </td>

</tr>

1998</td> Sierra Studios releases Half-Life.</td> </td> bli</td>

</tr>

1998</td> Rockstar Games releases Grand Theft Auto.</td> </td> bli</td>

</tr>

1999</td> Apple releases Mac OS 9. OS 9 increased security, provided automatic software updates, and supported USB printers and USB audio.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

1999</td> LEGO releases the Robotics Discovery Set, Droid Developer Kit and Robotics Invention System 1.5</td> </td> eosowski</td>

</tr>

1999</td> First radar-based adaptive cruise control system introduced by Mercedes </td> “How Does Adaptive Cruise Control Work?”. 2015. http://www.proctorcars.com/how-does-adaptive-cruise-control-work/. Access Date: 21 Mar 2016</td> aaadkins</td>

</tr>

1999</td> Wi-Fi Alliance was formed. </td> http://www.wi-fi.org/who-we-are</td> hfang</td>

</tr>

1999</td> 802.11a and 802.11b was released. </td> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.11 </td> hfang</td>

</tr>

1999</td> Apple introduced Wi-Fi to public</td> http://www.businessinsider.com/steve-jobs-wifi-macworld-1999-video-2014-10</td> hfang</td>

</tr>

1999</td> DoubleClick begins using user info and advertising</td> </td> eapolekoff</td>

</tr>

1999</td> U.S. President Bill Clinton announces a $1.46 billion initiative to improve government computer security.</td> http://www.cnn.com/TECH/computing/9901/26/clinton.idg/</td> ajmokotoff</td>

</tr>

1998-1999</td> The worldwide network began forming with Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Israel, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Japan, Sweden and the UK connecting to the NSFNET.</td> Mowery, David C., and Timothy Simcoe, Is the internet a US invention?-an economic and technological history of computer networking, http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.wpi.edu/science/article/pii/S0048733302000690 (9/2/2015)</td> svadlamudi</td>

</tr>

1999</td> The Wi-Fi Alliance is formed, and Wi-Fi is formally coined, representing any “wireless local area network” (WLAM) following 802.11 standards.</td> http://www.wirelesshistoryfoundation.org/wireless-history-project/wireless-history-timeline </td> zrrobbins</td>

</tr>

1999</td> Intel Pentium III </td> </td> dstapply</td>

</tr>

2000</td> President Clinton ordered that GPS Selective Availability (SA) feature be turned off</td> </td> gmport</td>

</tr>

2000</td> Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) developed</td> </td> zhenhe</td>

</tr>

2000</td> Apple IPod Digital recorders - Apple's IPod represents the coming of age of digital recording. The IPod become a fashionable thing to have and thus introduced digital recording such as MP3 to the public.</td> </td> </td>

</tr>

2000</td> Microsoft releases Windows Me. Designed specifically for media, Windows Me introduced tools for media editing and sharing. It also introduced the system restore.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

2000</td> Microsoft releases Windows 2000 Professional. This OS was designed to replace prior versions of Windows OS in work environments. It had improvements in ease of use, reliability, and internet capabilities. It also simplified hardware installation.</td> </td> </td>

</tr>

2000</td> Bluetooth Headset</td> http://www.bluetooth.com/Pages/History-of-Bluetooth.aspx</td> akshoop</td>

</tr>

2000</td> Honda debuts its new humanoid robot ASIMO</td> </td> eosowski</td>

</tr>

2000</td> The Predator drone flies over Afghanistan searching for Osama Bin Laden. This Predator drone only had imagery equipment on it and was successful in finding Osama Bin Laden</td> http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/how-the-predator-drone-changed-the-character-of-war-3794671/</td> addresser</td>

</tr>

<p>2000</p> </td>

<p>

AMD introduces a 64-bit architecture backwards compatible with Intel’s x86 instruction set, bringing 64-bit processors to the consumer desktop market.
</p> </td>

<p><a href="https://exchange.wpi.edu/owa/redir.aspx?SURL=nSIo5cRbejQu3nCc4SUWd5KXp0Ku-F06GOqVJWVQY7RPN1-TElLTCGgAdAB0AHAAOgAvAC8AZABlAHYAZQBsAG8AcABlAHIALgBhAG0AZAAuAGMAbwBtAC8AdwBvAHIAZABwAHIAZQBzAHMALwBtAGUAZABpAGEALwAyADAAMQAyAC8AMQAwAC8AMgA0ADUAOQAzAF8AQQBQAE0AXwB2ADIALgBwAGQAZgA.&URL=http%3a%2f%2fdeveloper.amd.com%2fwordpress%2fmedia%2f2012%2f10%2f24593_APM_v2.pdf" target="_blank" style="font-family: Tahoma; font-size: 13.3333px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 20px; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: -24px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;">http://developer.amd.com/wordpress/media/2012/10/24593_APM_v2.pdf</a>, </p> </td>

ajthompson</td>

</tr>

2000</td> Digital wireless users outnumber analog subscribers </td> http://www.wirelesshistoryfoundation.org/wireless-history-project/wireless-history-timeline </td> </td>

</tr>

2000</td> Baidu was created and became a regularly used search engine in China. </td> Agarwal, M., & Round, D. K. (2011). The emergence of global search engines: Trends in history and competition. Competition Policy International, 7(1), 114-134.</td> hanguyen</td>

</tr>

2000-2008</td> Pentium IV 64 bit processor
</td>
</td> dstapply</td>

</tr>

2001</td> After the events of September 11th, CIA creates the Targeted Killing Campaign, allowing them to kill anyone who they believe was involved in the attacks.</td> http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone</td> addresser</td>

</tr>

2001</td> Apple launches OS X.</td> </td> tjnickerson</td>

</tr>

2001</td> The iPod is released, with the potential to hold and play hundreds or thousands of songs.</td> </td> rpdabrowski</td>

</tr>

2001</td> The FDA approves the robotic Cyberknife system to search for and treat tumors anywhere in the body.[eosowski] 2001 Wikipedia is launched</td> </td> dtocco</td>

</tr>

2001</td> Palm Inc. releases the first cell phone with a web browser on it.</td> </td> mburns23</td>

</tr>

2001</td> Nissan Cima model introduced in Japan with lane keep assist feature </td> “Driverless Cars: How Long Until We Can Sit Back and Relax?”. 2014. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/11273463/Driverless-cars-how-long-until-we-can-sit-back-and-relax.html</td>

<p>aaadkins</p> </td> </tr>

2001</td> Apple releases Mac OS X: Cheetah. Cheetah reintroduced the terminal and introduced the dock. However, Cheetah suffered from reliability and speed issues and it was missing basic CD capabilities.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

2001</td> Apple releases Mac OS X: Puma. Puma featured improvements in speed. It also addressed the missing CD capabilities that Cheetah had and supported much more hardware.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

2001</td> Microsoft releases Windows XP. Windows XP was designed with a clean interface in mind. It was made for the average user, so it was very intuitive and featured more help and support than any other Windows OS. It also featured large improvements in security, reliability, and speed.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

2001</td> IBM creates the POWER4 processor, the first multicore processor. </td>

http://www.cpushack.com/2011/01/24/ibms-server-processors-the-rs64-and-the-power,</td>

ajthompson</td>

</tr>

2002</td> "Foldable Portable Cellular Phone" - Mobile Phone with Camera introduced</td> </td> clhudson</td>

</tr>

2002</td> Sony releases SmartSkin introducing mutual capacitive touch recognition.</td> </td> djbenson</td>

</tr>

2002</td> Apple releases Mac OS X: Jaguar. Cheetah provided many networking capabilities and introduced tools for users with disabilities.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

2002</td> The Bush administration files a bill to create the Department of Homeland Security, which will be responsible for protecting the nation’s critical IT infrastructure.</td> http://www.allgov.com/departments/department-of-homeland-security?detailsDepartmentID=571</td> ajmokotoff</td>

</tr>

2002</td> Poma Wearable PC</td> Alpert, Mark. Machine Chic: The Poma Wearable Computer is Flashy but Not very Functional. 287 Vol. Scientific American, Inc, 2002.</td> akshoop</td>

</tr>

2002</td> Sony releases the Walkman NWZ-X1000, its latest “play-only cassette Walkm[a]n”</td> http://content.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1907884,00.html</td> wofrick</td>

</tr>

2003</td> MySpace & 4chan are founded</td> </td> dtocco</td>

</tr>

2003</td> Apple releases Mac OS X: Panther. Panther introduced the ability to have multiple users logged in at once. It also introduced some user friendly features.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

2003</td> First commercial use of quantum encryption</td> </td> zhenhe</td>

</tr>

2003</td> First Pentium 4 by Intel, 55 million transistors</td> </td> ndemarinis</td>

</tr>

2003</td> Toyota begins selling Prius model in Japan that can automatically parallel park.</td> “Toyota Unveils Car That Parks Itself”. 2003. http://www.cnn.com/2003/TECH/ptech/09/01/toyota.prius.reut/index.html.</td> aaadkins</td>

</tr>

2003</td> Digital Pacemaker</td> CLARKE, HELEN. "PACEMAKER GOES DIGITAL ; Braodgreen Pioneers CD Surgery: FIRST Edition." Liverpool Echo: 9. 2003.</td> akshoop</td>

</tr>

2003</td> The completion of the human genome project</td> Greenhalgh, Trisha. "The Human Genome Project." Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 98.12 (2005). Web.</td> xjjackson</td>

</tr>

2003</td> The hacktivist group Anonymous was formed.</td> http://www.bustle.com/articles/65444-how-did-anonymous-start-the-history-of-the-mysterious-hacktivist-group-began-quite-some-time-ago</td> ajmokotoff</td>

</tr>

2003</td> 802.11g released</td> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.11 </td> hfang</td>

</tr>

2004</td> Facebook is Founded</td> </td> eapolekoff</td>

</tr>

2004</td> The Spirit and Opportunity robotic rovers land on Mars</td> </td> eosowski</td>

</tr>

2004</td> IBM's creation "Embedded ViaVoice" and according to IBM, “Honda is the first car manufacturer to equip automobiles with in-car navigation systems using advanced speech recognition and text-to-speech capabilities that can identify spoken street and city names that exist across the entire continental United States".</td> Jesberg, Gina. "IBM Delivers New, World-Class In-Car Speech Recognition System for Navigation in 2005 Honda Cars." IBM News Room. IBM, 1 Sept. 2004. Web. 04 Sept. 2015.</td> leantul</td>

</tr>

2004</td> Yahoo created its own search engine based on companies that it had previously acquired, such as Inktomi and Overture. </td> Seymour, T., Frantsvog, D., & Kumar, S. (2011). History of search engines. International Journal of Management and Information Systems, 15(4), 47.</td> hanguyen</td>

</tr>

2005</td> A modernized GPS satellite developed by Lockheed Martin was put into orbit around the Earth</td> </td> gmport</td>

</tr>

2005</td> In the second DARPA Grand Challenge 5 teams complete the off-road robotics course.</td> </td> eosowski</td>

</tr>

2005</td> YouTube is launched, hosting all kinds of music. The list includes official music videos, pirated music and homemade tunes.</td> </td> </td>

</tr>

2005</td> Apple releases Mac OS X: Tiger. Tiger introduced more built in tools, such as a thesaurus and dictionary. It also provided voice capabilities for users with disabilities.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

2005</td> Blue Brain is born, a project to simulate the brain at molecular detail.</td> http://bluebrain.epfl.ch/</td> allewis</td>

</tr>

2005</td> Wacom released a Cintiq tablet that raised the benchmarks for digital drawing.</td> </td> wtao</td>

</tr>

2006</td> Microsoft releases Windows Vista. Vista focused more on security than any prior Windows OS. It also featured a new sleek look.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

2006</td> Lexus adds self-parking system capable of parallel and angle parking to Lexus LS sedan. </td> “The Lexus LS460: It Really Does Park Itself”. 2006. https://www.cars.com/articles/2006/09/ls_460_parking/</td> aaadkins</td>

</tr>

2006</td> Cornell University reveals its "Starfish" robot which is capable of self-modeling and learning how to walk after being damaged.</td> </td> eosowski</td>

</tr>

2006</td> Albert Gonzalez stole over 45 million payment cards used by customers of US retailer TJX, which owns TJ Maxx, and UK outlet TK Maxx. Attacks on this scale were unheard of and frightened the entire world. IT costed the company $256 million. What caused companies to start buying secure security system to cope with this new reality.</td> http://www.infosecurity-magazine.com/opinions/the-history-of-cybersecurity/</td> ajmokotoff</td>

</tr>

2006</td> Nike + iPod</td> Peters, Luke. "Nike + iPod Sport Kit." Personal Computer World 21 Sept. 2006. General OneFile. Web. 4 Sept. 2015.</td> akshoop</td>

</tr>

2006</td> Guruji was created specifically to provide India with a search engine. </td> Agarwal, M., & Round, D. K. (2011). The emergence of global search engines: Trends in history and competition. Competition Policy International, 7(1), 114-134.</td> hanguyen</td>

</tr>

2006</td> During a TED Talk Jeff Han demos “multitouch sensing though frustrated total internal reflection.” This was a technique originally used for imaging finger prints.</td> </td> djbenson</td>

</tr>

2007</td>

<p>Pedometers begin changing from pendulum based counters to accelerometer based counters</p> </td>

<p>Scarlett, J. (2007). Enhancing the performance of pedometers using a single accelerometer. Application Note, Analog Devices.</p> </td>

tjaskoviak</td>

</tr>

2007</td> WPI becomes the first college to offer a BS in Robotics Engineering</td> </td> eosowski</td>

</tr>

2007</td> Apple Releases iPhone</td> </td> clhudson</td>

</tr>

2007</td> Facebook Launches 'Beacon' Service</td> </td> eapolekoff</td>

</tr>

2007</td> Microsoft debuts the “Surface” which was a large table top touchscreen interface, as well as the first iPhone is released.</td> </td> djbenson</td>

</tr>

2007</td> Chinook checkers program becomes unbeatable at checkers</td> </td> cpnota</td>

</tr>

2007</td> Six vehicles complete DARPA Urban Challenge in which they navigate through a 60 mile urban driving course while obeying traffic laws and navigating with other autonomous and human-driven vehicles.</td> Autonomous Vehicle Technology: A Guide for Policymakers. Rand Corporation, 2014. Pg. 57</td> aaadkins</td>

</tr>

2007</td> Apple releases Mac OS X: Leopard. Leopard introduced remote access capabilities. It also introduced parental controls as well as the equivalent of a system restore called time machine.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

2007</td> Apple's release of iOS popularizes touch screen computing and the mobile GUI.</td> </td> tjnickerson</td>

</tr>

2007</td> A spear phishing incident at the Office of the Secretary of Defense steals sensitive U.S. defense information, leading to significant changes in identity and message-source verification at OSD.</td> http://en.docsity.com/news/algorithms/origins-of-hacking-heartbleed</td> ajmokotoff</td>

</tr>

2007</td> United Nations website hacked by Turkish Hacker Kerema125.</td> http://www.digitaltrends.com/home/hackers-hit-un-site/</td> ajmokotoff</td>

</tr>

2007</td> Stanford Research Institute, or SRI, developed Siri as part of a large DARPA project known as the Personal Assistant that Learns (PAL) project.</td> "Artificial Intelligence: CALO." SRI International - Timeline of Innovation. SRI International, n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2015.</td> leantul</td>

</tr>

2008</td> Around 20 Chinese hackers claim to have gained access to the world’s moist sensitive sites, including the Pentagon.</td> http://www.cnn.com/2008/TECH/03/07/china.hackers/</td> ajmokotoff</td>

</tr>

2008</td> The Roomba robotic vacuum surpasses 2.5 million units sold</td> </td> eosowski</td>

</tr>

2008</td> 1B-transistor GPU (GTX 200 Tesla)</td> </td> blammeson</td>

</tr>

2008</td> First i7 processor</td> </td> blammeson</td>

</tr>

2008</td> Apple captures 48% of the MP3 player market; SanDisk’s Sansa, in second place, has only 8%</td> http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/03/from-walkman-to-ipod-what-music-tech-teaches-us-about-innovation/253158/</td> wofrick</td>

</tr>

2008-2015</td> Intel Core Series</td> </td> dstapply</td>

</tr>

2008</td> Intel Atom, ultra-low voltage x86 processor using only 2W of power, compared to ~80W for a standard desktop CPU</td> </td> </td>

</tr>

2009</td> Facebook Shuts Down 'Beacon' Service</td> </td> eapolekoff</td>

</tr>

2009</td> Apple releases Mac OS X: Snow Leopard. Snow Leopard addressed issues with compatibility, OS size, and speed.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

2009</td> Microsoft releases Windows 7. 7 featured different ways to work with the windows themselves, which made it even easier to use.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

</tr>

2009</td> W200 Wrist Computer</td> http://www.glaciercomputer.com/press-w200.html</td> akshoop</td>

</tr>

2009</td> 802.11n released</td> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.11 </td> hfang</td>

</tr>

2009</td> Google builds self-driving car.</td>
http://www.popsci.com/cars/article/2013-09/google-self-driving-car</td>
allewis</td>

</tr>

2009</td> The first Fitbit is released, soon to be one of the most popular pedometer/activity trackers</td> </td> tjaskoviak</td>

</tr>

2009</td> Bing, which was previously known as Live Search, Windows Live Search and MSN Search, was created. It allowed specifically for the user to search and search suggestions would also appear. </td> Seymour, T., Frantsvog, D., & Kumar, S. (2011). History of search engines. International Journal of Management and Information Systems, 15(4), 47.</td> hanguyen
</td>

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2010</td> Next Generation GPS Control Segment (OCX) contracted to Raytheon Company, Intelligence & Information Systems, for a 73 month development to modernize the GPS system</td> </td> gmport</td>

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2010</td> First 1B-transistor CPU card (Oracle Sparc T3, 16-core)</td> </td>
blammeson</td>

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2010</td> There were estimated to be over 1.9 billion web surfers worldwide</td> </td> dtocco</td>

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2010</td> Robonaut 2 is sent to the International Space Station, it is the first humanoid robot in space</td> </td> eosowski</td>

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2010</td> The Apple iPad is released. </td> </td> djbenson</td>

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2010</td> Instagram was released as a mobile photo-sharing social network site</td> </td> rding2</td>

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2010</td> First 4G capable phone released</td> http://www.wirelesshistoryfoundation.org/wireless-history-project/wireless-history-timeline </td> zrrobbins</td>

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2010</td> The release of the Kinect brings gesture recognition devices to the consumer's living room.</td> http://gizmodo.com/5563148/microsoft-xbox-360-kinect-launches-november-4</td> djkiourtsis</td>

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2010</td> Narrative Science creates computer program Quill writes a news story based on numerical sports or financial data.</td>
http://blogs.wsj.com/venturecapital/2013/09/10/how-many-jobs-could-narrative-sciences-robot-writing-tech-do/</td>
allewis</td>

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2010 to 2011</td> According to the Standford Research Institute, “Apple acquired the company in 2010, and in 2011 Siri was unveiled as an integrated feature of the iPhone 4S.”</td> 9. "Artificial Intelligence: CALO." SRI International - Timeline of Innovation. SRI International, n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2015.</td> leantul</td>

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2011</td> Apple releases Max OS X: Lion. Lion provides applications that increase ease of use and user experience. It also features a fast way to share files between nearby Macs.</td> </td> aquartulli</td>

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2011</td> University of Pittsburgh research team develops 1.5nm transistor</td> </td> </td>

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2011 </td> Siri is shown off at a conference for the first time under Apple </td> http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/01/22/siri-do-engine-apple-iphone_n_2499165.html </td> nmmuesch </td>

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2011 </td> Watson, IBM's computer, wins Jeopardy against Ken Jennings and Brad Rutter. </td> https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P18EdAKuC1U </td> nmmuesch </td>

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2011 </td> Bank of America website got hacked by a Turkish hacker named JeOPaRDY. An estimated 85,000 credit card numbers and accounts were reported to have been stolen</td> http://spicy-dj.blogspot.com/p/youth-hacking.html</td> ajmokotoff</td>

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2011</td> CIA kills Anwar al-Awlaki, a US citizen living in Yemen, who was involved with the terrorist group al-Qaeda. This sparks controversy about drones killing US citizens.</td> http://www.popsci.com/watch-brief-history-drone</td> addresser</td>

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2011</td> Jawbone, another big pedometer contender releases their first version of the UP tracker</td> </td> tjaskoviak</td>

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2012</td> The Curiosity Rover lands on Mars, it is the largest and most advanced Mars rover to date</td> </td> eosowski</td>

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2012</td> Google reveals project glass, a head mounted display designed to act as a simple computer.</td> Goldman, D. (2012). Google unveils “project glass” virtual-reality glasses. Money (CNN), 4.</td> djkiourtsis</td>

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2012</td> Windows 8 is released, featuring a redesigned start menu and a more touch based interface. It received mixed critical reception, with many citicizing the removal of the start menu.</td> </td> rdomanico</td>

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2012</td> Google car becomes first self-driving car to earn license plate in US</td> “How Google’s Autonomous Car Passed the First U.S. State Self-Driving Test”. 2014. http://spectrum.ieee.org/transportation/advanced-cars/how-googles-autonomous-car-passed-the-first-us-state-selfdriving-test</td> aaadkins</td>

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2012</td> Pebble Smartwatch</td> https://blog.getpebble.com</td> akshoop</td>

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2012</td> Microsoft Surface</td> https://news.microsoft.com/2012/10/16/microsoft-announces-new-surface-details/</td> nzhang2</td>

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2012</td>

<p>Nike releases their wrist band tracker Nike+ Fuelband, the current version of Nike pedometer/activity trackers</p> </td>

</td> tjaskoviak</td>

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2013</td> Internet.org, an initiative between Facebook and 6 other companies to bring affordable Internet access to all, is launched.</td> http://techcrunch.com/2013/08/20/facebook-internet-org/ </td> zrrobbins</td>

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2013</td> Pebble kickstarter programmable smartwatch hits the market </td> </td> hsahay</td>

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2013</td> Project Loon begins, where Google aims to provide Internet to the entire world through the use of stratospheric balloons</td> https://www.google.com/loon/where/ </td> zrrobbins</td>

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2013</td> Microsoft Surface Pro</td> http://www.tabletpccomparison.net/microsoft-surface-windows-8-pro</td> nzhang2</td>

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2013</td> Google Glass</td> http://glassalmanac.com/history-google-glass/</td> akshoop</td>

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2013</td> 802.11ac released</td> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.11 </td> hfang</td>

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2013</td> Microsoft Surface 2 & Surface Pro 2</td> http://www.gizmag.com/surface-2-vs-surface-pro-2/29484/</td> nzhang2</td>

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2013</td> First 4K graphics cards (GTX 700-series)</td> </td> blammeson</td>

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2013</td> Innovega iOptik</td> http://www.theverge.com/2013/1/10/3863550/innovega-augmented-reality-glasses-contacts-hands-on ; http://innovega-inc.com/new-architecture.php</td> akshoop</td>

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2013</td> GitHub releases Atom Shell (now Electron), a framework used for developing GUI applications using web technologies (HTML, JavaScript, etc.).</td> </td> tjnickerson</td>

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2014</td> The Bitcoin exchanged Mt.Gox filed for bankruptcy after $460 million was stolen by hackers and another $27.4 million went missing form it’s bank accounts</td> http://www.wired.com/2014/03/bitcoin-exchange/</td> ajmokotoff</td>

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2014</td> Microsoft Surface Pro 3</td> http://www.tabletpccomparison.net/microsoft-surface-pro-3</td> nzhang2</td>

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2014</td> White House computer system was hacked by Russians</td> http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/26/us/russian-hackers-read-obamas-unclassified-emails-officials-say.html?_r=0</td> ajmokotoff</td>

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2014</td> Amazon proposes using drone to deliver packages to customers. Around the same time, other areas are beginning to utilize drones such as farming, animal conservation, environmental protection, and real-estate.</td> http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/12/131202-drone-uav-uas-amazon-octocopter-bezos-science-aircraft-unmanned-robot/</td> addresser</td>

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2014</td> Myo Armband</td> http://www.tomshardware.com/news/thalmic-labs-myo-armband-ces,28385.html</td> akshoop</td>

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2014</td> Apple watch announced. On sale in 2015</td> </td> hsahay</td>

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2015</td> “The Impact Team” stole the user data of Ashley Madison, a commercial website billed as enabling extramarital affairs. The group copied personal information about the site’s user base, and threatened to release user’ names and personally identifying information if Ashley Madison was not immediately shut down. Approximately one month later, the group leaked more than 25 gigabytes of company data including user details.</td> http://www.wired.com/2015/08/happened-hackers-posted-stolen-ashley-madison-data/</td> ajmokotoff</td>

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2015</td> CD sales for the first half of 2015 are 41 million, a 31% drop from the same period in the previous year</td> http://www.bbc.com/news/entertainment-arts-34323530</td> wofrick</td>

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2015</td> First OLED monitors reach the market</td> http://www.oled-info.com/oled-devices/monitors</td> nadiaz</td>

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2015</td> Over 20,000 people including over 3,000 researchers in the field of AI and Robotics sign an open letter to ban development and use of autonomous weapons. Of the 20,000, included were Stephen Hawking, Elon Musk, and Steve Wozniak.</td> http://futureoflife.org/open-letter-autonomous-weapons/</td> allewis</td>

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2015</td> Tesla releases Tesla Version 7.0 Software, giving compatible Tesla vehicles the ability to maintain speed and distance behind other cars, stay in lanes, change lanes, scan for parking spots, and park autonomously</td> “10 Breakthrough Technologies 2016: Tesla Autopilot”. 2016. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/600772/10-breakthrough-technologies-2016-tesla-autopilot/</td> aaadkins</td>

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2015</td> Apple Watch</td> https://www.apple.com/watch/technology/</td> akshoop</td>

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2015</td> Microsoft Surface 3</td> http://www.tabletpccomparison.net/microsoft-surface-3</td> nzhang2</td>

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2015</td> Microsoft Surface Pro 4 & Surface Book</td> http://www.pcworld.com/article/2996029/tablet-pc/surface-book-vs-surface-pro-4-picking-the-best-came-down-to-just-one-thing.html</td> nzhang2</td>

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2015</td> Mota DOI SmartRing</td> https://www.mota.com/doi-smart-ring/</td> akshoop</td>

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</td> </td> </td> </td>

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